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Pre-Historic Georgia The indigenous people came from Asia across the "Bering Land Bridge"! Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Pre-Historic Georgia A rchaic P Woodlands aleo Mississippians Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Where is Georgia? Georgia 5 Regions/6 Physical Features/NW Hemispheres/USA Place/Location/ Regions/ Features Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Where is Georgia? 4 Most Georgians Live In This Region... 2 6 3 1 •Fall Line •Barrier Islands •Okefenokee Swamp •Appalachian Mtns. •Chattahoochee River •Savannah River Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © 5 European Exploration and Colonization Great Britain Hernando De Soto Gold Catholic Missions Friars St Catherine's Barrier Islands Guale Mocama Protestants Huguenots Mercantilism Virginia Colony Jamestown France Spain Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Georgia Becomes a Colony... Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © "The Trustee Period" 1732-1752 •21-21-5 •Trustees •Years •"Rules of the Land" •James Oglethorpe (GB) •Friend Died in Debtor's Prison •Wanted GA to be a Colony for the "Worthy Poor” •Chief Tomochichi •Mary Musgrove •City of Savannah •The Salzburgers •The Highland Scots •The "Battle of Bloody Marsh" •The "Spanish Threat" Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © •King George II Approved (Charter of 1732) it For 3 Reasons: •Charity/ Economics/ Defense ("Spanish Threat") "Royal Colony" 1752-1776 Royal Governors John Reynolds Henry Ellis James Wright The Road to Discontent and The American Revolution... Colonist/Patriots/Whigs vs Great Britain/Loyalists/Tories French and Indian War France and Great Britain Also known as the "Seven Year's War" Native Americans Fought with France Fought Over the Ohio River Valley Territory Great Britain Won The "Treaty of Paris" gave G.B. the Territory... King George III's "Proclamation of 1763" Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © The War Was Expensive... the Colonist Paid... The "Sugar Act" The "Stamp Act" "TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION " "Son's of Liberty" and the "Boston Massacre" The "Townshend Act" The "Tea Act" The "Boston Tea Party" The "Intolerable Acts" The fighting begins at the "Battle of Lexington and Concord"! Georgia in the American Revolution... "The siege of Savannah" "Battle of Kettle Creek" •Georgia was a Loyal Colony •Georgia gained Territory after the French and Indian War •Georgia was the Only Colony to Follow the "Stamp Act" •Georgia's Group of "Patriots" were the "Liberty Boys" •When the colonists met at the First Continental Congress, Georgia had no delegates. Elijah Clarke Austin Dabney Nancy Hart Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Georgia's Role With "The Declaration of Independence" Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and George Walton - Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress met in Tondee’s Tavern (“The Cradle of Liberty in Georgia”) in Savannah, GA and appointed delegates to the Second Continental Congress. They Signed the Declaration of Independence. Preamble-Feelings Body-Grievance Against the King Conclusion-Declared Independence Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Georgia's Constitution of 1777 and the U.S. Constitution Georgia's Constitution of 1777 was Modeled after the Articles of Confederation No Tax Collection System Too Much Legislative Power (Unicameral) No Military to Enforce Laws • Georgia had two delegate that signed the Constitution : • Abraham Baldwin (His vote forced a tie over the issue to support small state representation) • He helped develop the “Great Compromise” (Each state gets 2 members (bicameral) in the Senate, but representation in the House of Representation was based on the states’ population. • William Few (voted in favor of the National Government) • Baldwin and Few hoped the Federal Government would help them fight the Native Americans in Georgia. • On January 2, 1788, Georgia was the 4th State to Ratify (approve) the U.S. Constitution. • Since southern states were made up of many slaves , how weren’t allowed to vote, the population was counted by measuring each slave as 3/5 of a person (“The Three-Fifths Compromise”). • In 1791, Ten Amendments were added to the Constitution called the “Bill of Rights”. Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Georgia's Growth and Expansion 1st State University in the U.S.A. - U.G.A. Athens, GA Capitol City - Moved From Savannah to Louisville Baptist and Methodist Church Growth - "Second Great Awakening" Land Policies - Headright System, Land Lotteries and the Yazoo Land Fraud Technological Growth - Raildroads & Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Indian Removal Creek 2 chiefs and 2 Treaties Alexander McGillivray - Treaty of New York William McIntosh - Treaty of Indian Springs Cherokee "Assimilates" (White Life)/Sequoyah (Written Language) Chief John Ross Dahlonega Gold Rush - Georgia Wanted the Land President Andrew Jackson Executed the "Indian Removal Act" Worcester vs Georgia (Court Case Challenging the "Indian Removal Act") Judge John Marshall Ruled in Favor of the Cherokee A Group of Cherokee Eventually Gave-Up the Land With the Treaty of Echota "The Trail of Tears" Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Causes of the Civil War Sectionalism Slavery States' Rights Tariff of 1828 Nullification Missouri Compromise (Missouri/Maine) (2 at a time) Compromise of 1850 (C.A./ Fugitive Slave Act) Georgia Platform (Uphold the Fugitive Slave Act/Not ban Slavery) Kansas-Nebraska Act (Popular Sovereignty) Key Events... Key Events... First Battle - Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 Kentucky, Maryland,Missouri and Delaware were "border states" - Didn't join the Confederacy Antietam- Bloodiest Day of the War Emancipation Proclamation - Slaves Free Chickamauga - Georgia's first and largest battle Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Union Blockade - Prevented the South from trading with Europe Gettysburg- Largest and deadliest Battle (Union Won) Atlanta Campaign - The Union's mission to take Atlanta - General William Sherman forced Confederates out of Atlanta and burned 90% of the city. Sherman continued his "march to the sea" taking Savannah. Dred Scott (Blacks Not a Citizen/ Can't Sue) Election of 1860 (Republican Abraham Lincoln-AntiSlavery) GA seceded from the Union in 1/21/1861 Alexander Stephen voted against secession) Key Events... Captured Union soldiers were placed in Andersonville Prison -horrible Conditions - 13700 soldiers are buried there. General Lee surrendered to the Union April 9, 1865 - The War Was Over 620,000 died... 2/3's from disease, wounds or prison hardships. Reconstruction Admitting Southern States Back Into The Union... Freedmen's Bureau Sharecroppers and Tenant Farmers 13th Amendment - Outlawed Slavery 14th Amendment - Citizenship and Protection Under the Law 15th Amendment - All Males the Right to Vote Regardless of Race Henry McNeal Turner and Other Black Legislators Won Elections in Georgia for the First Time. Klu Klux Klan - The Rise of Secret Hate Groups Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © "The New South" Bourbon Triumvirate "Industry and Business is better than agriculture." Racial Tension grew as Hoke Smith ran for Governor and promised to remove the voting rights of Blacks... Joseph Brown John Gordon Alfred Colquitt Wealthy Democrats who argued for Industry and Business in Georgia; Believed in White Supremacy... Henry Grady - An ally of the Bourbon Triumvirate- Editor of the AJC - Voice of the South - Advocated for the "New South" The International Cotton Explosion - Hosted in Georgia to spotlight Georgia Populist- Farmers hated the industry/business movement - started the Farmer's Alliance- led to the Populist Party under Tom Watson Rebecca Latimer Felton - First U.S. Female Senator- for 24 hours - Replaced Tom Watson Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Atlanta Race Riots - 1906 Frank Leo Case - Antisemitism County Unit System - Voting System that supported small counties Jim Crow Laws - Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson - "Segregation was legal" as long as "separate was equal"... Disenfranchisement- Denying Voting Rights Racial Violence- KKK, cross burnings, polling places, churches The Response from Blacks... Booker T. Washington - No integration/Hard work/Vocational Education W. E. B. Du Bois - Believed that Blacks should speak out for their rights! John Hope - First President of Morehouse College and founded the first Black Graduate School for African Americans Lugenia Burns Hope - founded Neigh7Union for poor blacks Alonza Herndon - Slave-Barber-Wealth Georgia and World War I... CAUSES: M.A.I.N./Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand GEORGIA'S CONTRIBUTIONS: Training Camps Built Planes Trained Pilots Prisoners of War Camps Victory Gardens The “Great Depression” and WWII… Eugene Talmadge The Boll Weevil… The “Great Depression” 1929-Late 1930’s The Boll Weevil The 1920’s Drought The Cost of Farm Equipment The Migration of Farmers Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © Unemployment Low Wages Other Countries Owed the U.S. A. Money Debt Talmadge served three times as the commissioner of agriculture and three times as governor. Farmers backed Talmadge passionately, and he fought for farmer’s issues throughout his entire career. As governor, Talmadge resisted efforts to give more civil rights to African- Americans. “The New Deal” President Franklin D. Roosevelt Social Security Act Rural Electrification Agricultural Adjustment Act Civilian Conservation Corps WWI - Treaty of Versailles - “The Great Depression” WWII Impacts GA 3 Dictators Hitler - Mussolini -Hirohito Georgia’s Economic Gain From WWII Germany Attacks Poland - WWII Lend-Lease Act Bell Aircraft - Building Planes Ship Yards in Savannah and Brunswick “The Liberty” Numerous Military Bases (Richard Russell and Carl Vinson) Georgia’s Ties to President Roosevelt Japanese and US Tension Warm Springs, GA December 7, 1941-Japan Attacks the US - Pearl Harbor August 1945 US Drops Atomic Bombs on Japan Georgia’s Response to the Holocaust Governor Joe Frank Harris Established the GA Commission on the Holocaust Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta Jewish Families and Career Ser vices Georgia After WWII Ellis Arnall Transformation of Agriculture The Tractor Fewer Tenant Farmers Fewer FarmsLarger Farms 1/3 Poultry Farming Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © “The People’s Governor” WIlliam Hartsfield and Allen Ivan, Jr. Hartsfield - Expressways and An Airport Allen Ivan, Jr. - Hawks, Braves and Falcons 1. Education – Arnall’s TOP PRIORITY; he removed the Governor from the University of Georgia’s Board of Trustees and restored UGA’s accreditation. 2. Arnall lowered the voting age to 18 YEARS OLD!!! 3. Arnall abolished the poll tax in Georgia. 4. Arnall revised the state’s constitution. 5. Arnall paid off the state debt. 6. Arnall was a champion of prison reform, ending many practices such as the chain gang. Civil Rights Movement Benjamin Elijah Mays: “father of the Modern Civil Rights Movement” Martin Luther King, Jr.: leader of the Modern Civil Rights Movement 1946 Governor’s Election: The “Three Governor’s Controversy” – In November 1946, Eugene Talmadge was elected for a fourth term as governor, but died before taking office. A struggle ensued, with three men claiming the office. Herman Talmadge – the son of Eugene Talmadge - Ellis Arnall – the current Governor Melvin E. Thompson – the Lieutenant Governor. Melvin Thompson was declared the winner. Brown vs the Board of Education: “Separate but equal” was now illegal because… SEPARATE IS NEVER EQUAL!!! 1956 State’s Flag: GA changed its state flag to include the Confederate battle flag to protest the court case… The founding of the SNCC: Several students adopted King’s strategy The Sibley Commissions: A commission formed to ask Georgians how they felt about the matter. The Integration of UGA: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes became the first two African- Americans to enroll at UGA. The Albany Movement: Goal – Bring national attention to the Civil Rights movement by ending all types of segregation in Albany (buses, trains, libraries, hospitals, juries, etc. ). The March on Washington: In August 1963, more than 250,000 people converged on Washington, D.C. to demand equal rights for blacks. Here, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech ... The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Civil Rights Act… prohibiting discrimination in all public places and making it illegal to discriminate in employment on the basis of race or sex. The Election of Governor Lester Maddox: Lester Maddox became a GA celebrity in 1964 when he chose to close his Atlanta restaurant rather than comply with the Civil Rights Act. Mayor Maynard Jackson: The first African-American mayor of a major American city. Andrew Young: In the 1950s and 1960s, Young organized voter registration and desegregation efforts in Albany and other southern cities. He worked closely with MLK, Jr. and the SCLC. In 1972, Young was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, the first black elected from GA since Reconstruction.• In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed Young to be the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. In 1981, he succeeded Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta. In 1996, he served as co- chairman of the Atlanta Commission on the Olympic Games (ACOG). Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © End of the County Unit System Modern Georgia… The Rise of Two Parties… • Many Democrats in Washington, D.C. (like John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson) supported integration. Most Georgia Democrats disagreed and began to look to the Republican Party as an alternative. • In 1964, Georgia, for the first time, supported a Republican for President. • Since 1964, Georgia has supported a Democratic candidate for President only twice. • In 2003, Sonny Perdue became the first Republican Governor of Georgia since 1868. Dr. Eldrick H. Horton © • In 1962, the U.S. Supreme Court declared the county unit system to be a violation of “equal protection”. • According to the Supreme Court, political equality meant “one person, one vote.” Reapportionment = Equal Representation The 1996 Olympics… • Tremendous respect, recognition, and investment poured into Georgia from all over the world!!! • Atlanta and other Georgia cities gained new hotels, restaurants, athletic facilities, and the 21-acre Centennial Park • The estimated impact of the Olympics on Atlanta was over $5 BILLION. Most of Georgia’s economic fortune today is because of the Centennial Olympic Games. Jimmy Carter - 39th President • The first and only Georgian to be elected U.S. President. • He has been an active supporter of Habitat for Humanity to help the poverty- stricken in 3rd world nations like Haiti. New Immigrants… • Georgia’s foreign-born population increased, between 1990 and 2000, by an incredible 233% !!! • Since the mid-1970s, Georgia has attracted a large number of refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. More recently, immigrants have arrived from Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East. • Immigrants have had the largest impact on north Georgia, where the Hispanic population have moved to fill jobs in construction, poultry processing, and carpet manufacturing. • Nearly 1/4th to 1/2 of all carpet mill workers are Hispanic immigrants.