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Pre-Historic Georgia
The indigenous people came from Asia across the
"Bering Land Bridge"!
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Pre-Historic Georgia
A
rchaic
P
Woodlands
aleo
Mississippians
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Where is Georgia?
Georgia
5 Regions/6 Physical Features/NW
Hemispheres/USA
Place/Location/
Regions/
Features
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Where is Georgia?
4
Most Georgians Live
In This Region...
2
6
3
1
•Fall Line
•Barrier Islands
•Okefenokee Swamp
•Appalachian Mtns.
•Chattahoochee River
•Savannah River
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
5
European Exploration and Colonization
Great Britain
Hernando De Soto
Gold
Catholic
Missions
Friars
St Catherine's
Barrier Islands
Guale
Mocama
Protestants
Huguenots
Mercantilism
Virginia Colony
Jamestown
France
Spain
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Georgia Becomes a Colony...
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
"The Trustee
Period"
1732-1752
•21-21-5
•Trustees
•Years
•"Rules of the Land"
•James Oglethorpe (GB)
•Friend Died in Debtor's Prison
•Wanted GA to be a Colony
for the "Worthy Poor”
•Chief Tomochichi
•Mary Musgrove
•City of Savannah
•The Salzburgers
•The Highland Scots
•The "Battle of Bloody
Marsh"
•The "Spanish Threat"
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
•King George II
Approved (Charter of
1732) it For 3 Reasons:
•Charity/ Economics/
Defense ("Spanish
Threat")
"Royal Colony"
1752-1776
Royal Governors
John Reynolds
Henry Ellis
James Wright
The Road to Discontent and The
American Revolution...
Colonist/Patriots/Whigs vs Great Britain/Loyalists/Tories
French and
Indian War
France and Great Britain
Also known as the "Seven
Year's War"
Native Americans Fought
with France
Fought Over the Ohio River
Valley Territory
Great Britain Won
The "Treaty of Paris" gave
G.B. the Territory...
King George III's
"Proclamation of 1763"
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
The War Was
Expensive... the
Colonist Paid...
The "Sugar Act"
The "Stamp Act" "TAXATION
WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
"
"Son's of Liberty" and the
"Boston Massacre"
The "Townshend Act"
The "Tea Act"
The "Boston Tea Party"
The "Intolerable Acts"
The fighting begins at
the "Battle of
Lexington and
Concord"!
Georgia in the American Revolution...
"The siege of Savannah"
"Battle of Kettle Creek"
•Georgia was a Loyal Colony
•Georgia gained Territory after the French
and Indian War
•Georgia was the Only Colony to Follow the
"Stamp Act"
•Georgia's Group of "Patriots" were the
"Liberty Boys"
•When the colonists met at the First
Continental Congress, Georgia had no
delegates.
Elijah Clarke
Austin Dabney
Nancy Hart
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Georgia's Role With "The Declaration of Independence"
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and George Walton - Georgia’s Second
Provincial Congress met in Tondee’s Tavern (“The Cradle of Liberty in
Georgia”) in Savannah, GA and appointed delegates to the Second
Continental Congress. They Signed the Declaration of Independence.
Preamble-Feelings
Body-Grievance Against the
King
Conclusion-Declared
Independence
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Georgia's Constitution of 1777 and the U.S. Constitution
Georgia's Constitution of
1777 was Modeled after
the Articles of
Confederation
No Tax
Collection
System
Too Much
Legislative
Power
(Unicameral)
No Military to
Enforce Laws
• Georgia had two delegate that signed the Constitution :
• Abraham Baldwin (His vote forced a tie over the issue to support small state representation)
• He helped develop the “Great Compromise” (Each state gets 2 members (bicameral) in the Senate, but representation in the
House of Representation was based on the states’ population.
• William Few (voted in favor of the National Government)
• Baldwin and Few hoped the Federal Government would help them fight the Native Americans in Georgia.
• On January 2, 1788, Georgia was the 4th State to Ratify (approve) the U.S. Constitution.
• Since southern states were made up of many slaves , how weren’t allowed to vote, the population was counted by measuring each slave as 3/5
of a person (“The Three-Fifths Compromise”).
• In 1791, Ten Amendments were added to the Constitution called the “Bill of Rights”.
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Georgia's Growth and Expansion
1st State University in the U.S.A. - U.G.A. Athens, GA
Capitol City - Moved From Savannah to Louisville
Baptist and Methodist Church Growth - "Second Great Awakening"
Land Policies - Headright System, Land Lotteries and the Yazoo Land Fraud
Technological Growth - Raildroads & Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney)
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Indian Removal
Creek
2 chiefs and 2 Treaties
Alexander McGillivray - Treaty of New York
William McIntosh - Treaty of Indian Springs
Cherokee
"Assimilates" (White Life)/Sequoyah (Written Language)
Chief John Ross
Dahlonega Gold Rush - Georgia Wanted the Land
President Andrew Jackson Executed the "Indian Removal Act"
Worcester vs Georgia (Court Case Challenging the "Indian Removal Act")
Judge John Marshall Ruled in Favor of the Cherokee
A Group of Cherokee Eventually Gave-Up the Land With the Treaty of Echota
"The Trail of Tears"
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Causes of the Civil War
Sectionalism
Slavery
States' Rights
Tariff of 1828
Nullification
Missouri Compromise
(Missouri/Maine) (2 at a
time)
Compromise of 1850 (C.A./
Fugitive Slave Act)
Georgia Platform (Uphold the
Fugitive Slave Act/Not ban
Slavery)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
(Popular Sovereignty)
Key Events...
Key Events...
First Battle - Fort Sumter April 12,
1861
Kentucky, Maryland,Missouri and
Delaware were "border states" - Didn't
join the Confederacy
Antietam- Bloodiest Day of the War
Emancipation Proclamation - Slaves
Free
Chickamauga - Georgia's first and
largest battle
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Union Blockade - Prevented the
South from trading with Europe
Gettysburg- Largest and deadliest
Battle (Union Won)
Atlanta Campaign - The Union's
mission to take Atlanta - General
William Sherman forced
Confederates out of Atlanta and
burned 90% of the city. Sherman
continued his "march to the sea" taking Savannah.
Dred Scott (Blacks Not a
Citizen/ Can't Sue)
Election of 1860 (Republican
Abraham Lincoln-AntiSlavery)
GA seceded from the Union in
1/21/1861 Alexander Stephen
voted against secession)
Key Events...
Captured Union soldiers were
placed in Andersonville Prison
-horrible Conditions - 13700
soldiers are buried there.
General Lee surrendered to
the Union April 9, 1865 - The
War Was Over
620,000 died... 2/3's from
disease, wounds or prison
hardships.
Reconstruction
Admitting Southern States Back Into The Union...
Freedmen's Bureau
Sharecroppers and Tenant Farmers
13th Amendment - Outlawed Slavery
14th Amendment - Citizenship and Protection Under the Law
15th Amendment - All Males the Right to Vote Regardless of
Race
Henry McNeal Turner and Other Black Legislators
Won Elections in Georgia for the First Time.
Klu Klux Klan - The Rise of Secret Hate Groups
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
"The New
South"
Bourbon
Triumvirate
"Industry and Business is better
than agriculture."
Racial Tension grew as Hoke Smith
ran for Governor and promised to
remove the voting rights of Blacks...
Joseph Brown John Gordon Alfred Colquitt Wealthy Democrats who argued for Industry and
Business in Georgia; Believed in White Supremacy...
Henry Grady - An ally of the Bourbon
Triumvirate- Editor of the AJC - Voice of the
South - Advocated for the "New South"
The International Cotton Explosion - Hosted
in Georgia to spotlight Georgia
Populist- Farmers hated the industry/business
movement - started the Farmer's Alliance- led
to the Populist Party under Tom Watson
Rebecca Latimer Felton - First U.S. Female
Senator- for 24 hours - Replaced Tom Watson
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Atlanta Race Riots - 1906
Frank Leo Case - Antisemitism
County Unit System - Voting System
that supported small counties
Jim Crow Laws - Segregation
Plessy v. Ferguson - "Segregation was
legal" as long as "separate was equal"...
Disenfranchisement- Denying Voting
Rights
Racial Violence- KKK, cross burnings,
polling places, churches
The Response
from Blacks...
Booker T. Washington - No integration/Hard
work/Vocational Education
W. E. B. Du Bois - Believed that Blacks should
speak out for their rights!
John Hope - First President of Morehouse
College and founded the first Black Graduate
School for African Americans
Lugenia Burns Hope - founded Neigh7Union
for poor blacks
Alonza Herndon - Slave-Barber-Wealth
Georgia and World
War I...
CAUSES:
M.A.I.N./Assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
GEORGIA'S CONTRIBUTIONS:
Training Camps
Built Planes
Trained Pilots
Prisoners of War Camps
Victory Gardens
The “Great
Depression”
and WWII…
Eugene Talmadge
The Boll
Weevil…
The “Great Depression”
1929-Late 1930’s
The Boll Weevil
The 1920’s Drought
The Cost of Farm
Equipment
The Migration of
Farmers
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
Unemployment
Low Wages
Other Countries Owed
the U.S. A. Money
Debt
Talmadge served three times as the
commissioner of agriculture and
three times as governor.
Farmers backed Talmadge
passionately, and he fought for
farmer’s issues throughout his
entire career.
As governor, Talmadge resisted
efforts to give more civil rights
to African- Americans.
“The New
Deal”
President Franklin D.
Roosevelt
Social Security Act
Rural Electrification
Agricultural Adjustment
Act
Civilian Conservation Corps
WWI - Treaty of Versailles - “The Great Depression”
WWII Impacts GA
3 Dictators Hitler - Mussolini -Hirohito
Georgia’s Economic Gain From WWII
Germany Attacks Poland - WWII
Lend-Lease Act
Bell Aircraft - Building Planes
Ship Yards in Savannah and Brunswick “The Liberty”
Numerous Military Bases (Richard
Russell and Carl Vinson)
Georgia’s Ties to President Roosevelt
Japanese and US Tension
Warm Springs, GA
December 7, 1941-Japan Attacks
the US - Pearl Harbor
August 1945 US Drops Atomic Bombs
on Japan
Georgia’s Response to the Holocaust
Governor Joe Frank
Harris
Established the
GA Commission on the
Holocaust
Jewish
Federation of
Greater Atlanta
Jewish Families and
Career Ser vices
Georgia After
WWII
Ellis Arnall
Transformation of
Agriculture
The Tractor Fewer Tenant
Farmers
Fewer FarmsLarger Farms
1/3 Poultry
Farming
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
“The People’s Governor”
WIlliam Hartsfield
and Allen Ivan, Jr.
Hartsfield - Expressways
and An Airport
Allen Ivan, Jr. - Hawks,
Braves and Falcons
1. Education – Arnall’s TOP PRIORITY; he
removed the Governor from the
University of Georgia’s Board of Trustees
and restored UGA’s accreditation.
2. Arnall lowered the voting age to 18
YEARS OLD!!!
3. Arnall abolished the poll tax in
Georgia.
4. Arnall revised the state’s constitution.
5. Arnall paid off the state debt.
6. Arnall was a champion of prison
reform, ending many practices such as
the chain gang.
Civil Rights Movement
Benjamin Elijah Mays: “father of the Modern Civil Rights Movement”
Martin Luther King, Jr.: leader of the Modern Civil Rights Movement
1946 Governor’s Election: The “Three Governor’s Controversy” – In November 1946,
Eugene Talmadge was elected for a fourth term as governor, but died before taking office. A
struggle ensued, with three men claiming the office. Herman Talmadge – the son of Eugene
Talmadge - Ellis Arnall – the current Governor Melvin E. Thompson – the Lieutenant
Governor. Melvin Thompson was declared the winner.
Brown vs the Board of Education: “Separate but equal” was now illegal because…
SEPARATE IS NEVER EQUAL!!!
1956 State’s Flag: GA changed its state flag to include the Confederate battle flag to
protest the court case…
The founding of the SNCC: Several students adopted King’s strategy
The Sibley Commissions: A commission formed to ask Georgians how they felt about the matter.
The Integration of UGA: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes became the first two African- Americans to enroll at
UGA.
The Albany Movement: Goal – Bring national attention to the Civil Rights movement by ending all types of segregation in
Albany (buses, trains, libraries, hospitals, juries, etc. ).
The March on Washington: In August 1963, more than 250,000 people converged on Washington, D.C. to demand equal
rights for blacks. Here, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech ...
The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Civil Rights Act… prohibiting discrimination in all public places and making it illegal to
discriminate in employment on the basis of race or sex.
The Election of Governor Lester Maddox: Lester Maddox became a GA celebrity in 1964 when he chose to close his
Atlanta restaurant rather than comply with the Civil Rights Act.
Mayor Maynard Jackson: The first African-American mayor of a major American city.
Andrew Young: In the 1950s and 1960s, Young organized voter registration and desegregation efforts in Albany and
other southern cities.
He worked closely with MLK, Jr. and the SCLC.
In 1972, Young was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, the first black elected from GA since
Reconstruction.•
In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed Young to be the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations.
In 1981, he succeeded Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta.
In 1996, he served as co- chairman of the Atlanta Commission on the Olympic Games (ACOG).
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
End of the County Unit System
Modern
Georgia…
The Rise of Two Parties…
• Many Democrats in Washington, D.C.
(like John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B.
Johnson) supported integration. Most
Georgia Democrats disagreed and
began to look to the Republican Party
as an alternative.
• In 1964, Georgia, for the first time,
supported a Republican for President.
• Since 1964, Georgia has supported a
Democratic candidate for President
only twice.
• In 2003, Sonny Perdue became the first
Republican Governor of Georgia since
1868.
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton ©
• In 1962, the U.S. Supreme
Court declared the county
unit system to be a
violation of “equal
protection”.
• According to the Supreme
Court, political equality
meant “one person, one
vote.” Reapportionment =
Equal Representation
The 1996 Olympics…
• Tremendous respect, recognition,
and investment poured into
Georgia from all over the world!!!
• Atlanta and other Georgia cities
gained new hotels, restaurants,
athletic facilities, and the 21-acre
Centennial Park
• The estimated impact of the
Olympics on Atlanta was over $5
BILLION. Most of Georgia’s
economic fortune today is because
of the Centennial Olympic Games.
Jimmy Carter - 39th President
• The first and only
Georgian to be elected
U.S. President.
• He has been an active
supporter of Habitat for
Humanity to help the
poverty- stricken in 3rd
world nations like Haiti.
New Immigrants…
• Georgia’s foreign-born population
increased, between 1990 and 2000, by
an incredible 233% !!!
• Since the mid-1970s, Georgia has
attracted a large number of refugees
from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.
More recently, immigrants have arrived
from Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle
East.
• Immigrants have had the largest impact
on north Georgia, where the Hispanic
population have moved to fill jobs in
construction, poultry processing, and
carpet manufacturing.
• Nearly 1/4th to 1/2 of all carpet mill
workers are Hispanic immigrants.