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The Young Republic:
The Early Years
The Young Republic Test
A Day -- October 22
B Day – October 23
(Chapters 7 & 8)
We will…
 Compare and contrast the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties in order to
evaluate their impact on domestic and foreign policies from 1789-1825
 Compare and contrast the principles, programs, and constituencies of the
Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties
 Determine the role of Alexander Hamilton’s financial program in strengthening
the power of the federal government
 Analyze domestic policy and precedent setting Supreme Court decisions in order to
evaluate the role of the government during the Early National Period
 Analyze the impact of politics on domestic policy from 1789-1825
 Analyze Chief Justice John Marshall’s role in expanding the power of the federal
government and the federal judiciary
 Analyze United States involvement in international crises during the Early National
Period in order to evaluate foreign policy decisions of various presidential
 Determine the relationship of politics and foreign relations during the
Washington, Adams, and Jefferson administrations
 Evaluate neutrality as an effective foreign policy
 Evaluate causes of, opposition to, and results of the War of 1812
 Determine the reasons for, the basic principles of, and the importance of the
Monroe Doctrine
APUSH: Chapter 7 Identifications & Short Essay Questions
Identifications: Identify each of the following terms in order to make sure that you are familiar with each for focus writings,
discussion, quizzes, and essay tests in class.
George Washington/Cabinet/Judiciary Act of 1789
Bill of Rights/Chisholm v. Georgia/11th Amendment
Alexander Hamilton/Report on Public Credit/funding and
assumption of debt
Report on the National Bank/First Bank of the United States
Elastic (“necessary and proper”) clause/loose interpretation
Report on the Subject of Manufactures/tariffs/excise
taxes/Whiskey Rebellion
Henry Knox/Indian Non-Intercourse Act
Citizen Genet/Proclamation of Neutrality
Anthony Wayne/Battle of Fallen Timbers/Treaty of Greenville
Jay’s Treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty
Federalists/Republicans/Election of 1796
XYZ Affair/Quasi-War
Alien & Sedition Acts
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions/states’
Election (revolution?)of 1800
Judith Sargent Murray/”On the Equality of the
Sexes”/republican motherhood
Richard Allen/Absalom Jones/African Methodist Episcopal
(AME) Church
Eli Whitney/cotton gin
Ch. 7 Short Essay Questions: Be sure you know the information for the other two just in case you see them down the line.)
How did the Washington Administration help get the new
What was the whiskey rebellion and was Washington correct
republic on its feet politically and economically?
in his handling the crisis? Why or why not?
Consider issues related to:
Structure of government-
Preservation of individual liberties-
What (if any) gains did women and African-Americans make
in American society in the 1790s? To what extent were the
ideals of the American Revolution achieved for these two
groups by 1800? Cite specific examples from the text.
Economic policy (Hamilton’s Plan)-
What were the Alien & Sedition Acts and were they justified?
Explain why or why not and offer your opinion of the
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
How did the Washington Administration handle foreign and
Indian policy challenges? Did it take the correct approach?
Consider relations with France, Britain, Spain and Native
APUSH: Chapter 8 Identifications & Short Essay Questions
Thomas Jefferson
Sally Hemings
popular virtue
Albert Gallatin
Barbary pirates/Tripolitan War
Judiciary Act of 1801
midnight appointments
John Marshall/judicial review/Marbury v. Madison
Louisiana Purchase/Lewis and Clark/Sacajawea
Aaron Burr/Twelfth Amendment/Burr Conspiracy
Broken voyage/impressment/Chesapeake Affair
Embargo Act/peaceable coercion
James Madison
Non-Intercourse Act/Mason’s Bill No. 2
War Hawks
Tecumseh/William Henry Harrison/Battle of Tippecanoe
War of 1812/Treaty of Ghent
Andrew Jackson/Battle of New Orleans
Hartford Convention
Henry Clay/American System
Era of Good Feelings/James Monroe
Dartmouth College v. Woodward/McCulloch v. Maryland
Missouri Compromise
Rush-Bagot Treaty
British-American Convention of 1818
Adams-Onis Treaty
Monroe Doctrine
Short Essay Questions
How did President Jefferson carry out his strict-constructionist philosophy of government?
Why did Jefferson purchase the Louisiana Territory, despite philosophical and practical problems with the deal? Explain the
reasons for and against the Louisiana Purchase.
3. How and why did Aaron Burr cause problems for the young American government? Consider the Election of 1800, his feud
with Hamilton, and his involvement in conspiracy.
What were the causes of the War of 1812? Consider both commercial issues and dealings with Native Americans in the
period from 1807 to 1812.
What brought about the Era of Good Feelings? Consider one-party rule, nationalism in the wake of the War of 1812, and
5. economic expansion.
6. What factors/disputes led to the Missouri Compromise? Why was it viewed as a Southern victory?
Federalists and Jeffersonians -- Interpreting Primary Sources
Reading 1: Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if ever he had a chosen people, whose breasts He has made
His peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue.
-Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia
Reading 2: While we have land to labor then, let us never wish to see our citizens occupied at a work-bench, or twirling a
distaff....For the general operations of manufacture, let our workshops remain in Europe....The mobs of great cities add just so much to
the support of pure government, as sores do to the strength of the human body.
-Thomas Jefferson
Reading 3: If I could not go to Heaven but with a party I would not go there at all.
-Thomas Jefferson
Reading 4: All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. The first are the rich and well born, the other the mass of
the people.... The people are turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or determine right. Give therefore to the first class a distinct,
permanent share in the government. They will check the unsteadiness of the second, and as they cannot receive any advantage by
change, they therefore will ever maintain good government.
-Alexander Hamilton
Reading 5: Yesterday Expired, Deeply regretted by Millions of grateful Americans, And by all good men, The Federal
Administration of the Government of the United States....
It found the United States bankrupt in estate and reputation; it hath left them unbounded in credit; and respected throughout the world.
It found the treasuries of the United States and individual states empty; it hath left them full and overflowing....
It found the United States at war with the Indian Nations;--it hath concluded peace with them all....It found Great Britain in possession
of all the frontier posts; it hath demanded their surrender, and it leaves them in the possession of the United States. It found the
American sea coast utterly defenseless; it hath left it fortified. It found our arsenals empty; and magazines decaying; it hath left them
full of ammunition and warlike implements. It found our country dependent on foreign nations for engines of defense; it hath left
manufactories of cannon and muskets in full work....
It found our mechanics and manufacturers idle in the streets for want of employ; it hath left them full of business, prosperous,
contented, and happy. It found the yeomanry of the country oppressed with unequal taxes;--their farms, houses and barns decaying;
their cattle selling at the sign-posts; and they driven to desperation and rebellion; it hath left their coffers in cash; their houses in
repair; their barns full; their farms overstocked; and their produce commanding ready money, and a high price....
It found the United States deeply in debt to France and Holland; it hath paid all the demands of the former and the principal part of the
latter....It found the United States without a swivel on float for their defense; it hath left a navy--composed of thirty-four ships of
war.... It found the exports of our country, a mere song, in value; it hath left them worth above seventy millions of dollars per annum.
-Boston Columbian Centinel , 1801
Reading 6: The Bible would be cast into a bonfire, our holy worship changed into a dance of Jacobin phrensy, our wives and
daughters dishonored, and our sons converted into the disciples of Voltaire and the dragoons of Marat.
-Yale College President Timothy Dwight, on the possibility of Jefferson's election
Reading 7: Thomas Jefferson is a firm Republican,--John Adams is an avowed Monarchist....Thomas Jefferson first drew the
declaration of American independence;--he first framed the sacred political sentence that all men are born equal. John Adams says this
is all a false and a falsehood; that some men should be born Kings, and some should be born Nobles....Will you, by your votes,
contribute to make the avowed friend of monarchy President?--or will you, by neglectfully staying at home, permit others to saddle
you with Political Slavery?
-1796 Jeffersonian election statement
Questions To Think About
1. Describe the differences between the Federalists and the Republicans in their attitudes toward democracy, the role of government,
and cities and manufacturing.
2. Do you consider the Federalists or the Republicans to be more realistic? more idealistic?
3. What was the purpose of Hamilton's program--to create a wealthy class and bind their loyalties to the national government or to
build a strong and prosperous nation?
4. Why do you think the Federalists went down to defeat in 1800?
Using Ch. 7 of the The Enduring Vision (pp. 189-207), summarize the characteristics/positions for each party in the categories below and on the back page.
(specific names)
Regions of Support
(and social groups)
Views on …
Popular Rule
Interpretation of the
Central Bank
Use of Executive Force
(e.g., the Whiskey
Rebellion of 1794)
Foreign Policy:
Neutrality/Jay Treaty
Alien & Sedition Acts
Kentucky & Virginia
Resolutions (1798)
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Economical Views
1. Believed in a public debt
2. Wanted to create a national bank to provide loans for businessmen, and to provide a place to deposit federal funds.
3. Believed that America should have a strong commercial society with a large industrial sector.
4. Believed that the government should foster business and contribute to the growth of capitalistic enterprise.
5. Favored a protective tariff to aid manufacturers
1. Opposed the National bank saying that it was unconstitutional and wanted to encourage state banks.
2. Felt that no special favors should be given to manufacturers.
3. Preferred an agrarian society with some industrial alternative to agriculture.
4. Felt that the national debt was harmful to society and all debts should be paid off quickly.
Social Views
1. Believed that mostly the wealthy should run society
2. Hamilton was a supporter of the upper class and many taxes like taxes on whiskey harmed the lower to middle class most.
3. Believed that voting qualifications should be high meaning that he did not want any who lacked intelligence voting.
4. Hamiltonians were mostly merchants, bankers, manufacturers, or wealthy farmers.
1. Believed that the "Common" people were capable of running the government
2. Believed that voting qualifications should be lower because common people had a say too.
3. Jefferson supported the lower and middle classes mostly.
4. Jeffersonians were mostly, artisans, shopkeepers, frontier settlers, or owners of small farms.
Political Views
1. Admired the British aristocracy and believed it should be a model for American Gov.
2. Believed in a strong central Gov.
3. Favored a broad interpretation of the constitution to strengthen central Gov. at expense of state rights.
4. Hamiltonians, under certain circumstances, favored restrictions on speech and the press.
5. Believed at the time that America should break official bonds with France and tie itself closely to Britain.
1. Believed in a government more democratic than Britain's.
2. Jefferson wanted to reduce the number of federal office holders.
3. Jefferson favored freedom of the press and speech.
4. Jefferson also had a broad interpretation of the constitution but many times, it was only to favor himself or the situation.
5. Wanted increased states rights and was suspicious of the central Gov. because of probable tyrannical overpowering like England.
Probable feelings of modern day society
1. In terms of economics, Hamilton's ideas of a national debt and series of taxes would hold true. Also, two national banks exist today.
2. In terms of social views, Hamilton's idea of the wealthy dominating government and running society did not hold true. Although
most of the strong figures in government are very wealthy, society is really dominated by the middle to upper middle classes.
3. In terms of politics, Hamilton's idea of a government leaning more towards an aristocracy does not hold true today, for our
government is and has been for a long time, a democratic government. However, there are many office holders today, and we do
indeed have a very strong central Gov.
1. Hamilton's ideas of a strong agrarian society dominated by the lower to middle class do not hold true today. Hamilton would
probably support most of the economical features in society.
2. Jefferson’s social views are also not completely true for his system would strongly support the lower to middle class people, and
modern-day society is run mostly by the middle to upper middle class (except for those like Bill Gates).
3. Jefferson’s political views of society might be most approved of. His democratic government idea runs today very smoothly, and
his idea that all should be allowed to vote also exists today (the word "All" should be used carefully).
Compare and contrast the social, political, and economic philosophies of Jefferson and Hamilton.
Speculate on how Jefferson and Hamilton might react to the current conditions of American domestic
and foreign affairs. Use current events as examples.
Outcome Significance
Presidential Election Issues
Early Challenges to the Young Republic
Using the readings provided and your textbook for each challenge to the young republic, fill in the chart with the appropriate information
Paying off the Debt
What is the
Who are the
in this
problem does
this present to
the Young
How might
this impact
the Young
What is the
point of
What is the
point of
How did the
framers solve
each issue?
How would
you solve
each issue?
Whiskey Rebellion
Jay’s Treaty
The National Bank
What is the
Who are the
participants in
What problem
does this
present to the
How might
this impact the
What is the
point of view?
What is the
point of view?
How did the
framers solve
each issue?
How would
you solve each
Sedition Act
Election of 1800
The aspect of our politics has wonderfully [astonishingly] changed since you left us.
In place of that noble love of liberty and republican government which carried us
triumphantly thro' the war, an Anglican, monarchical and aristocratically party has
sprung up, whose avowed object is to draw over us the substance as they have
already done the forms of the British government. The main body of our citizens
however remain true to their republican principles, the whole landed interest is with
them, and so is a great mass of talents. Against us are the Executive, the Judiciary,
two out of three branches of the legislature, all of the officers of the government, all
who want to be officers, all timid men who prefer the calm of despotism to the
boisterous sea of liberty, British merchants and Americans trading on British capitals,
speculators and holders in the banks and public funds a contrivance invented for the
purposes of corruption and for assimilating us in all things, to the rotten as well as the
sound parts of the British model. It would give you a fever were I to name to you the
apostates* who have gone over to these heresies, men who were Samsons in the
field and Solomons in the council, but who have had their heads shorn by the harlot
England. In short we are likely to preserve the liberty we have obtained only by
unremitting labors and perils. But we shall preserve them, and our mass of weight
and wealth on the good side is so great as to leave no danger that force will ever be
attempted against us. We have only to awake and snap the Lilliputian cords with
which they have been entangling us during the first sleep which succeeded our
-Thomas Jefferson to Philip Mazzei, 1796
Identify the groups that Jefferson cautions are becoming an increasing threat.
Jefferson is describing a change in his rapport with what individuals?
What underlying problems or issues within the national government are revealed by Jefferson’s letter?
Make a prediction regarding national politics at the turn of the century.
What political, social, or economic issue of the Early National Period does the cartoon above illustrate?
Did the artist present a legitimate threat in the illustration? Explain.
The Providential Detection (1797–1800). In this lithograph Thomas Jefferson kneels at the altar of despotism as an American eagle tries to prevent him from burning the
Constitution in a fire fueled by radical writings. Jefferson's letter to Philip Mazzei, in which he allegedly criticized John Adams and George Washington, falls from his right hand.
*apostates-One who has abandoned one's religious faith, a political party, one's principles, or a cause.
Marshall Court Cases
Background Information
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Thomas Jefferson, a member of the Republican Party, won the election of 1800. The outgoing President, John Adams, proceeded to
rapidly appoint 58 members of his own party to fill government posts created by Congress. It was the responsibility of the Secretary of
State, John Marshall, to "deliver the commissions," finish the paperwork, and give it to each of the newly appointed judges. Although
Marshall signed and sealed all of the commissions, he failed to deliver 17 of them to the respective appointees. Marshall assumed that
his successor would finish the job, but when Jefferson became President, he told his new Secretary of State, James Madison, not to
deliver some of the commissions, because he did not want members of the opposing political party to take office. Those individuals
couldn't take office until they actually had their commissions in hand. William Marbury, whom Adams had appointed as justice of the
peace of the District of Columbia, was one of these last-minute appointees who did not receive his commission. Marbury sued James
Madison and asked the Supreme Court of the United States to issue a writ of mandamus, a court order that requires an official to
perform or refrain from performing a certain duty. In this case, the writ would have ordered Madison to deliver
the commission. Marbury argued that he was entitled to his commission and that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Supreme Court of
the United States original jurisdiction to issue a writ of mandamus. Madison disagreed. When the case came before the Court, John
Marshall — the person who had failed to deliver the commission in the first place — was the new Chief Justice. If this situation were
to arise today, Marshall would likely disqualify himself because of a conflict of interest.
Background Information
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Many state banks did not like the competition and the conservative practices of the Bank of the United States. As a way to restrict the
Bank's operations, the state of Maryland imposed a tax on it. After the Bank refused to pay the tax, the case went to court. Maryland
argued that the federal government did not have the authority to establish a bank, because that power was not delegated to them in the
Constitution. The Supreme Court reached a unanimous decision that upheld the authority of Congress to establish a national bank. In
the opinion, Chief Justice John Marshall conceded that the Constitution does not explicitly grant Congress the right to establish a
national bank, but noted that the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution gives Congress the authority to do that which is
required to exercise its enumerated powers. Thus, the Court affirmed the existence of implied powers. On the issue of the authority of
Maryland to tax the national bank, the Court also ruled in the Bank's favor. The Court found that "the power to tax involves the power
to destroy . . . If the states may tax one instrument [of the Federal Government] they may tax any and every other instrument . . . the
mail . . . the mint . . . patent rights . . . judicial process? This was not intended by the American people. They did not design to make
their government dependent on the States." Furthermore, he said, "The Constitution and the laws made in pursuance thereof are
supreme; they control the Constitution and laws of the respective states and cannot be controlled by them."
Background Information
Dartmouth V. Woodward (1819
Dartmouth College Case
In 1819 the U.S. SUPREME COURT, in Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheaton 518, extended judicial
interpretation by declaring private-corporation charters to be contracts and hence, by the contract clause of the CONSTITUTION OF
THE UNITED STATES, immune from impairment by state legislative action. Circumstances had aligned Republicans against
Federalists and egalitarianism against religious establishment to complicate the education squabble. On 26 August 1815 the
selfperpetuating board of trustees established under the charter of 1769 deposed the president of Dartmouth, John Wheelock. New
Hampshire legislative enactments presently altered the charter and brought the institution under state control by enlarging the board;
by creating a board of overseers appointed by the legislature, with veto on trustee action; and by changing its name to Dartmouth
University. The college sued William H. Woodward, an adherent of the university faction and former secretary-treasurer of the
college, for recovery of the charter, the seal, and other documents. After a state court decision favorable to the university faction,
Daniel Webster argued the case before the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall's opinion held that the New Hampshire law
was invalid because it impaired contractual obligations. This decision freed existing corporations from control by the states that
created them and became a bulwark of laissez faire and a boon to corporate development. Control was later largely restored by (a)
state legislation reserving the right to alter or repeal subsequent charters and (b) judicial decisions forbidding legislatures to grant, by
charter, rights that menace the community or to surrender, by charter, its duty under the police power to protect the life, safety, and
morals of the community.
Background Information
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
One of the enduring issues in American government is the proper balance of power between the national government and the state
governments. This struggle for power was evident from the earliest days of American government and is the underlying issue in the
case of Gibbons v. Ogden. In 1808, Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston were granted a monopoly from the New York state
government to operate steamboats on the state's waters. This meant that only their steamboats could operate on the waterways of New
York, including those bodies of water that stretched between states, called interstate waterways. This monopoly was very important
because steamboat traffic, which carried both people and goods, was very profitable. Aaron Ogden held a Fulton-Livingston license to
operate steamboats under this monopoly. He operated steamboats between New Jersey and New York. However, another man named
Thomas Gibbons competed with Aaron Ogden on this same route. Gibbons did not have a Fulton-Livingston license, but instead had a
federal (national) coasting license, granted under a 1793 act of Congress. Naturally, Aaron Ogden was upset about this competition
because according to New York law, he should be the only person operating steamboats on this route. Ogden filed a complaint in the
Court of Chancery of New York asking the court to stop Gibbons from operating his boats. Ogden claimed that the monopoly granted
by New York was legal even though he operated on shared, interstate waters between New Jersey and New York. Ogden's lawyer said
that states often passed laws on issues regarding interstate matters and that states should be able to share power with the national
government on matters concerning interstate commerce or business. New York's monopoly, therefore, should be upheld. Gibbons'
lawyer disagreed. He argued that the U.S. Constitution gave the national government, specifically Congress, the sole power over
interstate commerce. Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution states that Congress has the power "[t]o regulate Commerce with foreign
Nations, and among the several States. . . ." Gibbons' lawyer claimed that if the power over interstate commerce were shared between
the national government and state governments, the result would be contradictory laws made by both governments that would harm
business in the nation as a whole. The Court of Chancery of New York found in favor of Ogden and issued an order to restrict
Gibbons from operating his boats. Gibbons appealed the case to the Court of Errors of New York, which affirmed the lower court's
decision. Gibbons appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the United States. The key question in this case is who should have
power to determine how interstate commerce is conducted: the state governments, the national government, or both. This as no small
matter, as the nation's economic health was at stake. Before the U.S. Constitution was written, the states had most of the power to
regulate commerce. Often they passed laws that harmed other states and the economy of the nation as a whole. For instance, many
states taxed goods moving across state borders. Though many people acknowledged that these were destructive policies, they were
reluctant to give too much power over commerce to the national government. The trick was to find a proper balance. Chief Justice
John Marshall's decision in this case was a precedent for determining what that balance should be and has far-ranging effects to this
Name: ___________________________ Date: ______________ Period: ________
“John Marshall Court Case Fact Sheet”
Case: ______________________________________________________
1. Describe the conflict and the parties involved:
2. How do think the court ruled?
3. What was the reasoning of the Supreme Court Majority decision?
4. What long-range significance did the court case have in American History?
The American Revolution & the War of 1812
American Revolution
The War of 1812
Long-Term Causes
Long-Term Causes
Causes of the
Turning Point
Battles & Their
Treaty & the
Terms of the
Impact/Effects of
the War
Essential Question: To what degree was the War of 1812 a “second American Revolution”?
Jefferson “Ograbme” Cartoon
Objective-Determine the relationship of politics and foreign relations during the Washington, Adams, and Jefferson
1. What nation’s ship is docked at the shore?
2. Who is the turtle “grabbing” and WHY?
3. What president’s policy is being criticized?
4. Identify the political affiliation of the artist.
Washington’s Farewell Address
Read Washington’s Farewell Address and list FIVE main guidelines he describes to guide American foreign policy.
Foreign Policy 1789-1809
Evaluate the first three presidential administrations. To what degree did the foreign policy of Washington, Adams, and
Jefferson stay consistent with the guidelines established in Washington’s Farewell Address?
List events & policies below the corresponding president. Place a (+) if the event/policy is consistent with Washington’s
advice. Place a (-) if the event/policy is NOT consistent with Washington’s advice.
Foreign Policy
To what degree was Washington’s policy for the new American nation realistic?
Foundatons of American Foreign Policy
Directions- Write the letter of the foreign policy on the line by the item with the best description of that policy.
Next, place the list of events in chronological order at the bottom of the page.
_____1. Spain guaranteed American farmers the use of the Mississippi River and the right of deposit in New
Orleans in an attempt to prevent Anglo-American reproachment.
_____2. Restored the status-quo ante-bellum when a lengthy war and protracted negotiations failed to produce a
victory for either side.
_____3. United States stopped all foreign trade in an effort to pressure Britain and France into respecting our
rights as a neutral nation.
_____4. United States would refrain from intervention in European affairs but would regard as an “unfriendly
act” any attempt at further colonization in the Western Hemisphere.
_____5. Britain agreed to evacuate forts in the Northwest but made no concessions on impressment or
violations of our rights as a neutral nation.
_____6. United States rejected French demands for an apology, a loan, and a bribe as a condition of negotiation.
_____7. United States declared war against Britain in an effort to gain Canada, an end to Indian troubles on the
frontier, and respect for our rights as a neutral nation.
_____8. Spain ceded Florida to the United States and renounced any claim to Oregon in return for a United
States renunciation of any tenuous claims we might have to Texas and $5 million in claims of
Americans against the Spanish government in Florida.
_____9. Britain and the United States agreed to mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes.
_____10. United States would remain friendly and impartial toward both Britain and France rather than become
embroiled in the French Revolution in the critical first years of the Republic.
_____11. United States purchased a huge amount of land in order to guarantee Americans permanent use of the
Mississippi River.
_____12. Americans might sign commercial treaties with foreign nations but should steer clear of permanent
alliances that might entangle this country in European conflicts.
Foreign Policies:
Chronological Order of Events:
a. Adams-Onis Treaty
b. Proclamation of Neutrality
c. Monroe Doctrine
d. Rush-Bagot Treaty
e. Pinckney’s Treaty
f. XYZ Affair
g. Washington’s Farewell Address
h. Louisiana Purchase
i. Treaty of Ghent
j. Jay’s Treaty
k. Embargo Act of 1807
l. War of 1812
Years in
Political Party:
John Adams
Political Party:
Thomas Jefferson
Political Party:
James Madison
Political Party:
James Monroe
Political Party:
Domestic Policies/Events
Foreign Policies/Events
The Young Republic, 1788-1800: Washington’s Presidency & the American Party Politics
I. Washington’s First Term (1789-1792)
A. The Constitution created a general framework but lacked the details
Congress had to create a tax collection system, bureaucracy, & court system (Judiciary Act of 1789)
Washington defined the role of president & focused on domestic issues in his 1st term
B. The 1st cabinet was composed of Knox (War), Hamilton (Treasury), Jefferson (States), Randolph (Attorney Gen)
Alexander Hamilton
Thomas Jefferson
Strong central government
Limited government; Strong states
Industrial growth & alliance with England
Agrarian growth & alliance with France
Feared anarchy
Feared aristocracy
II. Hamilton's Plan for America
A. Sec of Treasury Hamilton generated solutions for the national and state debts & economic slump
Report on Public Credit (1790)
a. Funding national debt at face value
b. Assumption of states’ debts
c. Excise tax on whiskey
Bank of the United States (1791)
Proposed the creation of a private national bank (BUS) to regulate currency
Opposed by Madison & Jefferson (strict construction) but the elastic clause helped defend the bank
Report on Manufacturing (1791): Hamilton hoped to reduce U.S. dependence on Europe; Unsuccessful
III. Washington’s Second Term (1793-1797)
A. Washington was unanimously reelected, but his second term was dominated by foreign policy
Franco-British War in 1793 divided Americans as to who to support
Jefferson wanted to support France; Hamilton wanted to support England
Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
Jay’s Treaty (1794) was an attempt to get British soldiers out of western forts & recognize U.S. neutrality
The U.S. gained trade & the British left the west, but England refused to end impressment
John Jay was very unpopular with Americans & the House challenged the Senate’s right to ratify
Jay’s Treaty scared Spain into the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795); resolved the New Orleans & FL
The Battle of Fallen Timbers with Indians led to the Treaty of Greenville (1794) & cessions in Ohio
B. Disagreements over Hamilton’s financial plans & the Anglo-French wars led to America’s 1st political parties
1. Democratic-Republicans (Jeffersonian Republicans) favored states rights, strict construction, & ties to France
2. Federalists (Hamiltonians) favored a strong national government, loose construction, & ties to England
3. The parties distrusted each other & used partisan newspapers to destroy each other’s policies
4. The Whiskey Rebellion (1794) among western PA farmers confirmed each parties fears of the other
C. Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)
1. Established the two-term precedent for future presidents
2. Warned against political parties & foreign involvement
The Young Republic, 1788-1800: The Presidency of John Adams
I. The Adams Presidency
A. Political parties played a critical role in the 1796 election
Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) vs. John Adams (Federalist)
Adams won & the Federalists controlled the government until 1800
B. The Adams administration was plagued with problems
VP Jefferson (Republican) and retired Hamilton (Federalist) both undermined President Adams
Tensions with France erupted
France reacted to Jay’s Treaty by seizing American ships & impressing sailors
The XYZ Affair
i. French officials “X”, “Y”, & “Z” demanded bribes from U.S. ambassadors
ii. Anti-French sentiment in America rose & a “quasi-war” with France began
iii. The U.S. increased its army & Adams created a navy
iv. Hamilton & Adams grew further at odds
Federalists used the Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) to attack Republicans
Jefferson & Madison’s Virginia & Kentucky Resolves suggesting states nullify federal laws
C. Adams’s Finest Hour
Adams sent an ambassador to improve relations with France in 1799
Diplomats negotiated an end to old French treaties & a resumption of West Indian trade
Paved the way for the Louisiana Purchase in 1803
II. Peaceful Resolution: The Election of 1800
A. Federalists were fatally divided in 1800 allowing Jefferson to defeat Adams
B. The election of 1800 was revolutionary because of the peaceful transfer of political power
Thomas Jefferson and the Rise of the Republicans
I. America in 1800
A. In 1800, the USA was a new nation that shared North America with Spain, France, England, & Russia
B. The USA experienced intense population growth and westward expansion (new states: KY, TN, Ohio)
C. The American Economy in 1800: 84% of Americans directly involved in agriculture
1. The Southern economy centered around tobacco, rice, & cotton (after 1793)
In the North, most people were invested in livestock & grains; Industrialization was slowly beginning
Cities were a marginal part of American life
II. Jefferson as President (1801-1805)
A. Jefferson had clear goals as president: reduce the role of gov’t, repeal Federalist policies, & maintain peace
B. Jeffersonian Reforms
1. Repealed excise taxes, cut military spending, reduced U.S. debt, killed the Bank of the United States
Overturned Adam’s Judiciary Act of 1801 (“Midnight Appointments”)
This act flooded the federal courts with Federalists, including John Marshall
Controversy led to Marbury v. Madison (1803) & concept of “Judicial Review”
Bought Louisiana from France in 1803
a. Jefferson abandoned “strict construction” & denied Louisiana residents self-rule
Increased tensions with Native Americans:
a. Tecumseh swayed Indian tribes to avoid selling land to America
Commissioned the Louis & Clark expedition to survey the Louisiana territory
Jefferson (& others) hoped to civilize Indians into yeoman farmers in a vast western reservation
Led the U.S. to a successful victory over the Barbary States & gained international respect for the U.S.
III. Jefferson’s Second Term (1805-1809)
A. Jefferson won reelected in 1804 for maintaining peace, reducing taxes, & Louisiana but his 2nd term was divisive
B. Without Federalists to oppose, the two-party system was suspended:
1. The Democratic-Republicans dominated the legislative & executive branches
But, the party became factious as the “Tertium Quids” criticized Jefferson lack of virtue
C. The Yazoo Controversy
1. When GA politicians sold 35 million acres of fraudulent land, Jefferson was criticized for upholding the sales
The Supreme Court in Fletcher v. Peck (1810) established that the courts may overturn state laws
D. Jefferson endured criticism in the South for pressing for a Congressional bill end the slave trade in 1808
E. In 1803, England & France resumed war & violated U.S. neutrality rights
1. Jefferson refused to go to war & approved an embargo restricting trade with England & France in 1807
The embargo was both unpopular and ineffective: it hurt NE more than Europe & was expensive to enforce
IV. Conclusions
The War of 1812
I. The Road to the War of 1812
A. When England & France resumed war in 1803 & violated U.S. neutrality, Jefferson approved the Embargo of 1807
1. The embargo restricting U.S. trade with England & France
2. Jefferson contradicted his own principles of weak gov’t & liberty
3. The embargo was unsuccessful
a. The embargo hurt NE shipping more than it hurt England or France
b. Embargo required a larger government to prevent smuggling
B. In 1808, James Madison was elected president & proved equally ineffective in gaining recognition of neutrality
1. The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was ineffective
2. Macon’s Bill #2 in 1810 was ineffective
C. Republican War Hawks called for war, but Federalists were opposed…War against England was declared in 1812
II. James Madison & the War of 1812
A. The War of 1812
1. The U.S. was unprepared for war with England: refused to raise taxes, had a small army & government
2. The early campaigns did not go well for the American army or navy
B. Key Battles & Strategies
1. The British unsuccessfully invaded the U.S. through Canada after the Battle of Plattsburg
3. The British successfully attacked the Chesapeake, burned the capital, & bombed fort McHenry in Baltimore
4. The U.S. won at the Battle of New Orleans after the war was over making Andrew Jackson a national hero
C. At the Hartford Convention in 1814, NE Federalists called for Constitutional changes to preserve their power:
1. Wanted to restrict Congressional war powers, limit the president to one term, & end the 3/5 compromise
2. The Federalists appeared disloyal & never recovered
III. Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812
A. The Treaty of Ghent (1814) did not address U.S. neutrality or British impressment
B. The effects of the war:
1. Ended British-Indian alliances in the west
2. Led Spain to sign the Adams-Onis Treary in 1819 (ceded Florida & redrew the southern U.S. border)
3. The Federalists were fatally wounded & never recovered
James Monroe and the Era of Good Feelings (1816-1825)
I. The Era of Good Feelings After the War of 1812
A. The USA entered an Era of Good Feelings due to strong leadership, no political opposition, & a surge in nationalism
B. A Second Generation of American Leaders Replaced the Founding Fathers
1. James Monroe overwhelmingly was elected president in 1816 and 1820
2. The Great Triumvirate of young Republicans supported national economic development
a. Henry Clay represented the West & promoted the American System
b. John C. Calhoun represented the South & promoted states’ rights
c. Daniel Webster represented the North & promoted nationalism
C. Political Nationalism: Without serious Federalist opposition, the Republicans adopting “Federalist-like” policies
1. National economic development, a permanent army, & national university
2. Henry Clay’s “American System” (1816) helped stimulate industry & unify the North, South, & West
a. Second Bank of the United States
b. Tariff of 1816
c. National transportation improvements
D. Judicial Nationalism: John Marshall used the Supreme Court to strengthen the power of the national government
1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) established judicial review over the legislative & executive branches
Fletcher v. Peck (1810) established judicial review over the states
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) protected individual contracts from gov’t interference
McCullough v. Maryland (1819) reinforced the supremacy clause (national gov’t over the states)
Gibbons v. Odgen (1824) protected the national government’s right to oversee interstate commerce
E. Nationalist Foreign Policy: Monroe & Sec of State John Q Adams expanded American borders & role in the world
1. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) eased tensions between the U.S. and British Canada around the Great Lakes
2. Convention of 1818 established the northern border of the US at the 49°
3. Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) ceded Spanish Florida & claims to Oregon to the U.S. & established a SW border
4. The Monroe Doctrine (1823) was issued in response to Latin American revolutions
a. The U.S. will protect Latin America
b. The U.S. will act independent of Europe
II. Sectionalism in the Era of Good Feelings
A. Settlement to the Trans-Mississippi
1. After the War of 1812, settlers poured into western territories
2. This migration led to 5 new western states
B. Sectional disputes between the North & South began in the Era of Good Feelings & dominated politics for 40 years
1. Missouri’s request for admission to Union in 1817 revealed sectional rivalries between North & South
2. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 settled the issue (until 1850)
a. Missouri was added as a slave state & Maine was added as a free state
b. Slavery was banned everywhere in the Louisiana territory north of 36°30’
III. Conclusions