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Chapter 8 Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Nutrition
Lesson 8.1 Body Composition
Lesson Vocabulary
*body composition
*body fatness
*body mass index (BMI)
*eating disorders
*essential fat
*self esteem
Body composition is one of the five parts of health-related physical fitness. It is the combination of all the tissues that
make up the body such as bones, muscles, organs and body fat. Many factors contribute to body composition such as
heredity, age and maturation which you have no control over. There are two factors you can control, physical activity
and nutrition.
Body fatness is the percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat. Everyone needs to have some body fat but
too much or too little is unhealthy. The minimum amount of fat necessary for good health is called essential fat. Fat is
stored as energy and is used for fuel and it is also a shock absorber when you get bumped. It also helps insulate your
body to help keep you warm. An instrument that is used to measure body fatness is called calipers which measures the
thickness of fat folds beneath the skin.
Having too much body fat can also cause health problems. You can use your height and weight to calculate your body
mass index (BMI). The BMI uses a formula to help determine if you are overweight. The term overweight refers to
having more weight than other people, which isn’t the same as being high in body fat. Having a high BMI can give you a
greater risk of diseases such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure and diabetes.
Having too little body fat can sometimes lead to an eating disorder which is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening
condition associated with eating too little and often exercising too much. There are two main types of eating disorders,
anorexia and bulimia.
Determining body fatness is done by referencing a BMI chart based on your height and weight. On average for females,
less than 32% body fat ratings is considered healthy while for males less than 25% is considered healthy. However, it is
possible to be high in weight without being too fat because muscle weighs more than fat so people with a lot of muscle
can weigh more than people the same size but with less muscle.
Often, young people’s self-esteem can be affected by their body image. Self-esteem is how a person feels about
themselves. Sometime they allow their low self-esteem to guide their decision making. Some guidelines to help you
when it comes to making choices in dealing with peer pressure include:
Identify the problem and possible solutions.
Determine the good things about different choices.
Determine the negative things about different choices.
Discuss possible solutions with people you trust.
Talk to your friends about your goals and theirs.
Choose friends whose goals are similar to yours.
Use “I” statements to express yourself.
Lesson 8.2 Energy Balance: Physical Activity and Nutrition
Lesson Vocabulary
*basal metabolism
*discretionary foods
*energy balance
*energy expenditure
*energy intake
*MyPyramid(myplate) *nutrients
Energy balance is an important term to understand. It means consuming only as much energy through food as your
body uses each day. A way to measure your energy intake is to count the calories you consume. Calories are a unit of
measure for energy which is contained in food. Calories are what you burn when you exercise. If you burn more
calories than you consume that can result in weight loss, if you burn less calories than you consume that can result in
weight gain. The food you eat can be called calorie intake, and the calories your body burns is referred to as energy
expenditure. The typical teenage girl burns about 2200 calories each day and the typical boy burns about 2800 calorie a
day. This can vary based on age, body size, heredity, and activity level. In order to have energy balance, a person must
take in(energy intake) the same number of calories the they burn(energy expenditure) each day.
MyPyramid(now called MyPlate) is a food guide to help you consume the right amounts of food and the right kinds of
food. The energy you need to function daily is provided from your food. Food also provides important nutrients such as
carbohydrates, protein and fat-the three major sources of calories. Food also provides vitamins and minerals that help
your body function efficiently. Examples of vitamins include vitamins A, B, C, D, and E. Minerals are plant or animals
sources including calcium, salt and potassium.
Carbohydrates are a substance in foods that provide energy. Sugars and starches are considered carbohydrates. Grains,
vegetables, and fruits are primary sources of carbohydrates. There are two types of carbohydrates, simple and complex.
Simple carbohydrates are in items such as candy and soft drinks and should be limited in your diet. Complex
carbohydrates provide vitamins and energy for daily activities and are found in foods such as whole grains, fruits and
vegetables and also provide fiber that aids in digestion.
Proteins are another important nutrient and can be found in food items such as meats, beans, nuts, and milk. Proteins
help to build muscle and other body tissues.
Fats are another type of nutrient that the body requires. Among the types of fats are saturated fats, unsaturated fats
and trans-fats. Saturated fats are typically made from animal products and are solid at room temperature. Fats that are
not solid at room temperature, such as many oils, are more healthful, especially fish oil, canola, oil, and olive oil. These
are called unsaturated fats. Oils that are converted into solid form, such as margarine, are called trans-fats and should
be limited in your diet.
Discretionary foods are foods that aren’t necessary for good nutrition. These include mustard, ketchup, dressings and
sauces. They should all be used in moderation.
Your body expends(burns) calories even when you are not active. This is because your heart and other body organs
require energy to do their work. The amount of energy necessary just to keep your body going is called your basal
Part of learning to move skillfully is learning to move without wasted or unnecessary energy. Efficiency is the ability to
perform in the best possible way with little wasted energy.