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Transcript
Kim Berryman-Dages
Gregory Gates
Bryan LaBrecque
Judd Quarles
TOPIC…
How Does the
Government Actually
Operate and…
…What Role Does the
Public Administrator Play
In It?
FOUR KEY COMPONENTS…
To answer the question posed, we will focus on
four important components…
The Vision of the Framers of the US Constitution
President Woodrow Wilson’s Opinions
The Role of Public Administrators in Today’s Policy
Making
The Pros and Cons of “Out-sourcing” Government
Services (aka “Size of Government)
WHAT TYPE OF GOVERNMENT DID THE
FRAMERS OF THE CONSTITUTION
ENVISION?
BACKGROUND…

During infancy, the US framers were unsure what type
of government they desired, but were convinced of
one they shunned…
Care for a spot
of tea?
BACKGROUND (CONT)…
Articles of Confederation (1781)
Federalist v. Anti-Federalists

Central Government and State Government
Constitutional Convention
Participation/Representation
 Factions/Special Interests
 Separation of Powers

Ratification (1789)
Bill of Rights (1791)
KEY PLAYERS…
Federalists
Alexander Hamilton
James Madison
John Jay
George Washington
Ben Franklin
Anti-Federalists
Thomas Jefferson
Patrick Henry
Thomas Paine
George Mason
George Clinton
KEY ISSUES…
Federalists
Strong Central Gov’t
Ability to Tax
Ability to Wage War
National Government Would
Foster More Commerce
Preserving Order
Anti-Federalists
Government should rest with
States
Personal Liberties Unprotected
– No Bill of Rights
Central Power - Tyrannical
Congress - Aristocratic
Believed the Federalist Form of
Government was Untested
Unanimity was clearly not one of the objectives of the
framers of the US Constitution!! Similar arguments
continue to simmer today…
WHAT WERE WOODROW WILSON’S
OPINIONS OF THE WAY GOVERNMENT
WAS OPERATING ?
WOODROW WILSON (1856-1924)
President - 1913 to 1921
 Exponent of Progressive Reform Movement
 Scholar


Faculty Member at Bryn Mawr, Wesleyan, and
Princeton
 Visiting

“Lecturer of Administration” at Johns Hopkins
Notable Works
 Congressional
Government – 1885
 The Study of Administration – 1887
•
Significant Starting Point in the Study of Public Administration
HIS OPINION OF GOVERNMENT OPERATION
Good Administration was not Common in U.S.
Characterized by:
Corruption
Confusion
Sinecurism
Obscurity
Fraud
Inefficiency
Civil servants were a Class of Politicians
Government Too Focused on Political Issues when
Administrative Issues were More Critical
WHAT WERE WOODROW WILSON’S
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ITS
ADMINISTRATION?
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ADMINISTRATION
Abolish or Alter System of Separation of Powers and
Checks and Balances

Unnecessarily Created Obscurity and Inefficiency
Promote Effectiveness, Efficiency, Formalized
Administrative Law, Hierarchical Organization, and
Professional and Educated Public Servants

Believed all could be promoted simultaneously with
democracy
Politics-Administration Dichotomy

Firm Stance on Issue is Questionable
Study of Administration as a Science

Called for Comparative Study of Administration
WHO DO YOU SEE AS THE ACTUAL
POLICY MAKERS TODAY?
WHO IS INVOLVED IN POLICYMAKING?
Citizens and interest groups can play a large role
in setting the policy agenda.
The media also plays a role in setting the policy
agenda.
Executive Branch

President, Governors, Local Executives
Legislatures

Congress, State Legislatures, Local Legislative Bodies
Agencies

Organizations that actually decide how policy will be
implemented
THE COURTS AS POLICYMAKERS?
Much research has focused on the court systems
actions in a policymaking context
Ideological compositions of courts can shape
policymaking in a preemptive way.





Lawmakers are concerned about the ultimate fate of
laws.
“Limited political capital” of lawmakers.
Relations between policymakers and state Supreme
Courts are important in many states.
Hostile relationships- reductions in enactment of laws.
Friendly relationships- more enactment of laws.
WHERE DOES THE PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATOR FIT IN?
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATOR…
Formally had a role of party loyalist and one of
ensuring needs of political supporters.

Example: the Machine system with party “bosses.”
Now mostly serves as an agent of the government.


Important linkage between the profession, government, and
citizens.
Often involved in influencing policies that affect their
department.
Must exercise some autonomy to make tough
decisions as how to get things done.

Implementation
Agent to help make citizens happy.

Public input, encouragement of participation
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO
CONTRACT OUT SERVICES?
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
PPP or P3
Term PPP is fairly new term
Concept of using private
capital to provide public
facilities is very old
CONCEPT OF USING PRIVATE CAPITAL TO
PROVIDE PUBLIC FACILITIES
17th century France
constructed canals
18th and early 19th
century Britain road
repairs
Until mid-19th century
most of London’s bridges
Late 19th century the
Brooklyn Bridge in New
York
PPP A RESULT OF:
The public sector reform movement (New Public
Management) in the 1980s to accomplish:
Decentralization of government
Separate purchase of public services from provision
Output/performance based measurement for public services
Contract out public services to the private sector
Privatization of public services
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP)
DEFINITION
Act of reducing role of government or increasing the
role of the other institutions to produce goods and
services
A Public-Private Partnership is a contractual
agreement between a public agency and a private
sector entity
Skills and assets of each sector shared in delivering a
service or facility for the use of the general public
Each party shares in the risks and rewards potential
PPP EXAMPLES…
Transportation
Social infrastructure
Public utilities
Government offices
Specialized services
WHO’S IN CHARGE?
WHO IS IN CHARGE?
Depends on the Form of Government
(Historically five forms: council-manager, mayorcouncil, commission, town meeting and
representative town meeting)
Contract Execution
Public/ Private Entity Leadership
PROS AND CONS OF CONTRACTING
POSITIVE ASPECTS OF CONTRACTING
Mass transit
Hotels and Malls
Downtown development districts
PPP “DARLING” (EXAMPLE)
Sandy Springs, Georgia
After incorporation, and during recession, Sandy Springs, GA
$14 million surplus
$21 million reserve
Paved more roads in the community than county in past 20 years
New parks, established 125 person police force, and 89 firefighters with all
new equipment
Improved EMS capability, established a state-of-the art, joint electronic 911
service with another city
Five new GA cities, ranging in size from 2,500 to almost 100,000
Cost per capita of the traditional cities to 5 PPP cities 128% higher
NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF CONTRACTING
Log-rolling and pork-barrel politics
Weakened market tests
Weaker Management
Lack of innovation
Corruption
Crowding Out
CONCLUSIONS…
How does the Government Actually Operate and What
Role Does the Public Administrator Play in it?
 Government operation is a complex combination of
administration, bureaucracy, politics, public and
private agendas, mixed in with a touch of business
principles
 The Public Administrator’s primary role is to “wade
into this pool” and extricate the policies (at times
influencing and/or adjusting them) and then
implement steps to execute the policies in an
effective and hopefully, an efficient manner.
QUESTIONS?
Bryan LaBrecque – Framers
Gregory Gates – Woodrow Wilson
Judd Quarles – Policy Makers
Kim Berryman-Dages - Outsourcing