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Aristotle’s Triangle: A pictorial analysis of the speaking or writing situation. Speaker Audience Purpose or subject Rhetoric Rhetoric is a fancy word for using persuasive techniques in writing or speaking. Basically: using language effectively or persuasively In rhetoric, a rhetorical device is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading him or her towards considering a topic from a different perspective. Examples: Irony Metaphor List of 3 Repetition In order for a speaker or writer to speak or write, he or she MUST consider both the audience and purpose. For example: If you are talking to an elementary school class, your topic, diction, and tone will be different than if you were speaking to a high school class. Another example: When you talk to your friends, your topic, diction, and tone are different than when you talk to your parents or teachers. The speaker uses different approaches to influence the audience’s attitude toward the subject. These are the three ways you can appeal to an audience. Logos (logic) Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, but academic arguments rely more on logos. Use clear and reasonable ideas with proof (any statistic) Effect of appeal: Evokes a cognitive, rational response For example: Nine out of ten dentists prefer Crest toothpaste. If you have a good education, you are more likely to find a good job. Ethos (ethical or credibility) Related to the English word “ethics” and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. Effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we will more likely listen. The person must be qualified to give this speech. You must be credible and knowledgeable about the content about the speech or piece of writing Effect of appeal: Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values For example: If you walk in to your calculus class, and I am the teacher, I have no ethos in that class. A high school football player gives speech about the time and discipline required to be a successful football player. If you are sick, you are not going to go to your mechanic for help. Pathos (Emotions) Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy. Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos. As the writer or speaker, you try to appeal to their emotions You may want them to feel sympathy or joy Effect of appeal: Evokes a personal, emotional response For example: The commercials about the starving children or dogs use pathos to appeal to your emotions hoping to persuade you to believe in their purpose.