Download Text 1 The nobel prizes, awarded annually for distinguished work in

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Diver communications wikipedia , lookup

Text 1
The nobel prizes, awarded annually for distinguished work in chemistry, physics,
physiology or medicine, literature and international peace, were made available by fund
bequeathed for that purpose by Swedish philanthropist, Alfred Bernhard Nobel.
The prizes, awarded since 1901, are administrated by the Nobel Foundation in
Stockholm. In 1969, a prize for economics endowed by the Central Bank of Sweden was added.
Candidates for the prizes must be nominated in writing by a qualified authority in the field of
competition. Candidates are judged by Swedush and Norwegian academies and institutes on
the basis of their contribution to mankind. The awards are usually presented in Stockholm on
December 10, with the king of Sweden officiating, an appropriate tribute to Alfred Nobel on
the anniversary of his death. Each prize include a gold medal, a diploma, and a cash award of
about one million dollars.
1. What does the text mainly discuss?
a. Alfred Bernhard Nobel
b. The Nobel Prize
c. Great contributions to mankind
d. Swedish philanthropy
2. How often are the Nobel prizes awarded?
a. Five times a year
c. twice a year
b. Once a year
d. once every two years
3. A Nobel prizes would not be given to _______.
a. An author who wrote a novel
b. A doctor who discover a vaccine
c. A composer who wrote a symphony
d. A diplomat who negitiated a peace settlement
4. Why were the prizes named for Alfred Bernhard Nobel?
a. He left money in his will to fund for prizes
b. He won the first Nobel prize for his work in philanthropy
c. He is now living in Sweden
d. He serves as chairman of the committee to choose the recipients oh the prizes.
5. Which individual or organization serves as administrator for the trust?
a. The King of Sweden
c. The Central Bank of Sweden
b. The Nobel Foundation
d. Swedish and Norwegian academies and institutes
6. Why are the awards presented on December 10?
a. Because it is a tribute to the King of Sweden
b. Because Alfred Bernhard Nobel died on that day
c. Because that date was established in Alfred Nobel’s will
d. Because the Central Bank of Sweden administers the trust
Text 2
Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles have
overcome some of the limitations of diverse and diving equipment. Without a vehicle, divers
often became sluggish and their mental concertration was limited. Because of undersea
pressure that affected their speech organs, communication among divers was difficult or
impossible. However, today, most oceanographers make observations by means of
instruments that are lowered into the ocean or sampel taken from the water. Direct
observations of the ocean floor are made not only by divers but also by deep-diving
submarines. Some of these submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise
at depths of fifteen thousand feet. Radioequipped buoys can be operated by remote control in
order to transmit information back to land-based laboratories. Including data about water
temperature, currents and weather.
Some of mankind’s most seroius problems, especially those concerning energy and
food, may be solved with the help of observations made possible by these undersea vihicles.
1. What is the text primarilly concerned?
a. Recent technological advances
b. Communication among divers
c. Direct observation of the ocean floor
d. Undersea vehicles
2. Divers have had problems in communicating underwater because __________
a. The pressure affected their speech organs
b. The vehicles they used have not been perfected
c. They did not pronounce clearly
d. The water destroyed their speech organs
3. The text suggested that successful exploration of the ocean depends upon _________
a. Vehicles as wellas divers
b. Radios that divers use to communicate
c. Controlling currents and the weather
d. The limitations of diving quipment
4. Undersea vehicles ________________
a. are too small for a man to fit inside
b. are very slow to repond
c. have the same limitations that divers have
d. make direct observations of the ocean floor
5. How is the radio-equipped buoy operated?
a. By operators inside the vehicle in the part underwater
b. By operators outside the vehicle on a ship
c. By operators outside the vehicle on a diving platform
d. By operators outside the vehicle in laboratory on shore
6. According to the text, what are some of the problems the underwater studies may
eventually resolve?
a. Weather and temperature control
b. Food and energy shortages
c. Transportation and communication problems
d. Overcrowding and housing problems
Text 3
Although speech is the most advanced from of communication, there are many ways of
coomunicating without using speech. Signals, signs, symbols and gestures may be found in
every known culture. The basic function of a signal is to impinge upon the environment in
such way that it attracts attention as for example, the dots and dashes of a telegraph circuit.
Coded to refer to speech, the potential for communication is very great. Less adaptable to the
codification of words, signs also contain meaning in and of themselves. A stop sign or a bar –
ber pole conveys meaning quickly and conveniently. Symbols are more difficult to describe
than either signals or signs because of their intricate relationship with the receiver’s cultural
perceptions. In some cultures, applauding in a theater provides performers with an auditory
symbol of approval. Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain
cultural messages.
Although signals, signs, symbols and gestures are very useful, they do have major
disadvantage. They usually do not allow ideas to be shared without the sender being directly
adjacent to the receiver. As result, means of communication intended to be used for long
distances and extended periods are based upon speech. Radio, television, and the telephone
are only a few.
1. Which of the following would be the best tittle for the text?
a. Signs, Signals and Symbols
c. communication
b. Gestures
d. speech
2. What does the writer say about speech?
a. It is the only true form of communication
b. It is dependent upon the advances made by investors
c. It is necessary for communication to occur
d. It is the most advanced form of communication
3. According to the text, what is a signal ?
a. The most difficult form of communication to describe
b. A form of communication which may be used across long distances
c. A form of communication that interrupts the envirionment
d. The form of communication most related to cultural perceptions
4. Applauding was cited as an example of ______________
a. a signal
b. a sign
c. a symbol d. a gesture
5. Why were the telephone, radio, and TV invented?
a. Because people were unable to understand signs, symbols and signals
b. Because people wanted to communicate across long distance
c. Because people believe that signs, signals and symbols were obsolete
d. Because people wanted new forms of entertainment
6. It may be conclude from the text that _____________
a. Signals, signs, symbols and gestures are forms of communication
b. Symbols are very easy to define and interpret
c. Only some cultures have signals, signs and symbols
d. Waving and handshaking are not related to culture