Download Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Counter-Guerrilla wikipedia , lookup

Egyptian revolution of 1952 wikipedia , lookup

History of Egypt under Gamal Abdel Nasser wikipedia , lookup

Nation Building in the
Middle East: Three Case
An Iranian religious leader, Ruhollah
Khomeini, angrily denounced the
 Khomeini’s fiery speeches helped spur an
Iranian revolution in 1979.
 In this section, we will see how three
nations pursued modernization.
Setting the Scene
In the 1920s, Kemal Ataturk began his
campaign to transform Turkey into a
modern secular state.
 At the beginning of the Cold War, the
Soviets tried to expand southward into
Turkey to gain control of the Bosporus.
 Turkey joined NATO and remained an
important western ally in the
Turkey Moves Toward Democracy
Turkey struggled to build a stable
 At first, the military seized power in times
of unrest.
 Turkey transformed its economy by
expanding agriculture through increased
irrigation and by promoting industry.
 It exported crops and manufactured
goods to Europe and hoped to join the
European Union.
Government and Economy
Turkey tried to stamp out the culture of its
Kurdish minority.
 Kurds were forbidden to speak, publish, or
broadcast in their own language.
 Turkey also waged a long struggle over
Cyprus, an island in the eastern
 Turkey itself was divided.
Egypt has roots both in Africa, where it is
located, and in the Arab world.
 Geography has always played a key role
in Egypt's destiny.
 Its location between the Mediterranean
and red seas is strategically important.
 It shares a long border with Israel and
controls the Suez Canal.
Egypt, A Leader in the Arab World
Gamal Abdel Nasser emerged as a
towering Arab leader.
 Nasser was a military officer who rose to
power after the overthrow of a weak ruler
who had allowed foreigners to dominate
his country.
 Nasser set out to modernize Egypt and
end western Egypt and end western
After Nasser’s death in 1970, the new
president, Anwar Sadat, took steps to
open Egypt to foreign investment and
private business.
 In foreign affairs, Sadat moved away from
the Soviet camp and closer to the Inited
 In 1979, he became the first Arab leader
to make peace with Israel.
Iran became a focus of British, Soviet and
American investments.
 In 1945, Shah Muhammad Rez Pahlavi
had western backing but faced many
opponents at home.
 Iranian nationals wanted to end British
control of Iran’s oil wealth and limit the
shah’s dictatorial powers.
Nationalism and Oil
The new leaders bitterly denounced the
 When the shah was allowed into the
United states for medical treatment,
angry revolutionaries seized the American
embassy in Tehran and held 52 hostages
for over a year.
 Iran also tried to export its revolution.
 It urged Muslims in countries like egypt
and turkey to overthrow secular leaders.
Foreign Policy