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The Cold War Unfolds
15.1 Notes
I. Two Sides Face Off in Europe
U.S. and NATO vs. Soviets
and Warsaw Pact
U.S. and Soviets became
known as superpowers
due to their vast influence,
armies and nuclear arsenals
Iron Curtain-dividing line
between democratic
western and communist
eastern Europe
II. Eastern Europe Resists
Berlin Wall
The democratic West Berlin
was prosperous
Workers fled Eastern Berlin
Soviets put up a wall to stop
them leaving
Revolts in Eastern Europe
1950’s saw several
oppositions to Soviet policy
Countries that tried to leave
the Warsaw Pact or economic
reform or democracy were
III. Nuclear Weapons Threaten the
1949- Soviets had A-Bomb
1953- Both sides had
Hydrogen Bomb (x1000
more powerful)
Arms Race- U.S. and
Soviets raced to get more
and better weapons than
each other
MAD- the idea that if both
sides launched both would
be destroyed
This prevented open warfare,
hence the “Cold War”
IV. Limiting Nuclear Weapons
During the Cold War both sides did meet to
make progress toward reducing the threat of
nuclear weapons
 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation (NPT) Treaty
 1972 SALT I (Strategic Arms LimitationTalks)froze existing #of nukes, ABM treaty
ABM- Anti-ballistic missile- missile that can shoot
down other missiles
IV. Limiting Nuclear Weapons cont.
1979 SALT II- Set limits on # of nukes
 1991 START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)
Treaty- Reduced # of nukes
 1993 START II- No multiple warheads on
 2002 SORT or Moscow Treaty- Set limit on #
of warheads
 2010 New START- Reduces # of nukes
V. Cold War Goes Global
U.S. and Soviets established other alliances
around the world
 Local conflicts around the globe would turn
into Cold War “hot spots”
U.S. would support one side, Soviets the other
VI. The Cuban Missile Crisis
1950’s Fidel Castro overthrows previous dictator
and takes over Cuba
 Cuba seeks Soviet Union’s help
 1962 Soviets sent a nuke to Cuba
 Americans responded with a blockade
 U.S. President John F. Kennedy demanded the
missile removed
 13 days later Soviets agreed
 The world dodged a bullet and it might have
come to nuclear war
VII. Soviet Leaders During the Cold
Stalin dies in 1953
 Nikita Khrushchev 1953-1964
Closed prison camps
 Eased censorship
Leonid Brezhnev until 1964-1982
Reversed Khrushchev’s changes
VIII. The United States in the Cold War
Containment- U.S. policy of containing the
Soviet Union
 Fear led people to build bunkers and fallout
 Red Scare- fear of communists
Sen. McKamara led a witch hunt for communists