Download Week 10 Lecture - PSY 310

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Sports-related traumatic brain injury wikipedia , lookup

Sport psychology wikipedia , lookup

Sports injury wikipedia , lookup

Self-Talk in Sport
Injury Rehabilitation
WEEK 10: 3/09/15 – 3/13/15
 An injured athlete’s thoughts and things they say to
themselves regarding their injury influences their
emotions, behaviors, and recovery outcomes
 The extent, frequency, content, and type of self-talk
can vary depending on the situation and the
individual athlete
The Concept of Self-Talk
 Multiple definitions of self-talk have been proposed
 The authors define self-talk by the following
Self-talk represents verbalizations or statements addressed to
the self
It is multidimensional in nature (e.g., with frequency)
It has interpretive elements associated with the statements
It is dynamic
It serves as a function for the athlete (e.g., it can be
instructional and/or motivational)
Types & Functions of Self-Talk in Sport
 Overt/covert self-talk
 Assigned and self-determined self-talk
 Negative and positive self-talk
 Instructional and motivational self-talk
Overt/Covert Self-Talk
Overt/Covert Self-Talk
 Self-talk ranges on a continuum from overt to covert
 Overt self-talk involves externally verbalized
statements, allowing others to hear what is said
 Covert self-talk is defined as verbalizations made by
a small voice inside one’s head, or an inner dialogue
that cannot be heard by others
 Most athletes engage in one or both forms of self-talk
Assigned & Self-Determined Self-Talk
 Assigned self-talk – the individual has no self-
determined control over the statements (e.g., the
statements are given to the athlete by someone else such
as the sport medicine professional
 Self-determined (freely chosen) self-talk – the
individual completely determines their own statements
 Self-determined self-talk will likely offer more
motivational benefits for the athlete
According to cognitive evaluation theory, humans have an innate
desire to feel competent and self-determined
Thus, self-talk chosen by the athlete should have positive effects on
their self-determined motivation
Negative & Positive Self-Talk
 Self-talk is typically conceptualized as either positive
or negative
 Positive self-talk – is a form of praise and used to
keep one’s focus of attention in the present
 Negative self-talk – a form of criticism, presents
barriers to achieving because it is inappropriate,
anxiety-provoking, and/or irrational
 It is suggested positive self-talk facilitates
performance whereas negative self-talk is
debilitating to performance
Instructional & Motivational Self-Talk
 Instructional self-talk – increases attentional
focus on relevant technical aspects of performance
Aids in the execution of precision-based tasks that require
skill, timing, and accuracy
 Motivational self-talk – increases effort,
enhances confidence, and/or creates positive moods
Motivational self-talk is suggested to be more effective than
instructional self-talk for the execution of strength and
endurance based tasks
Instructional & Motivational Self-Talk
 Instructional self-talk has been further divided into 2
more specific functions:
Skills-specific instructions – focus on the technique of a skills;
might include statements (e.g., “keep the hands together”)
General self-talk – includes statements about strategies that are
important for performance (e.g., “stay in second until the last bend”)
 Motivational self-talk has been further divided into 3 more
specific motivational functions:
Motivational Arousal – use of self-talk in psyching up, relaxing,
and controlling arousal
Motivational Mastery – mental toughness, focus of attention,
confidence, and mental preparation
Motivational Drive – concerned with goal achievement and
consequently is associated with maintaining or increasing drive and
Conceptual Framework of Self-Talk
(Hardy, Oliver, & Tod, 2009)
 Conceptual framework of self-talk explains
factors believed to mediate the self-talk performance
relationship. Consists of 4 factors which influence
Research on Self-Talk in
Sport Injury Rehabilitation
 Research suggests that self-talk is useful for joint
restoration, muscular strengthening, and rehearsing
sport-related skills whilst injured
 Research has found a correlated between recovery
time and the use of positive self-talk
Athletes who healed faster reported greater use of goal setting,
imagery, and self-talk as compared to those who healed slower
Findings showed support for an athletes’ ability to influence
and control their thoughts during injury and rehabilitation
process and the positive use of self-talk during rehabilitation
 Study (Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 1993) found that
80% of Olympic wrestlers interviewed reported they
used thought control strategies to cope with injuries
Self-Talk Techniques in
Sport Injury Rehabilitation
Examples of self-talk techniques in sport injury
 Thought-stopping
 Reframing
 Intervention efficacy beliefs
 Thought-stopping – used to initially stop an
inappropriate (or negative thought) and then allow a more
functional (or positive thought) to be used in its place
 Steps of Thought-Stopping:
Increase athlete’s awareness of inappropriate self-talk
they are using (e.g., record the number of times an
inappropriate or negative comment about self is made)
2. Use a trigger to stop the inappropriate thoughts/talk
such as a cue word, image, or action (e.g., Say “stop” or
visualize the image of a stop sign as a reminder to stop
inappropriate self-talk statements
3. Use a more functional (positive) statement to replace the
previous inappropriate negative self-talk
Reframing Technique
 Reframing – technique used to modify an athlete’s
thoughts and self-statements (e.g., to challenge
negative appraisals especially in anxiety-provoking
Examples of Reframing of Self-Talk
“This is agony! I can’t believe I went in for that tackle!” 
Reframe this statement to: “I can handle this, I’m tough. I am
not the only person ever to be injured. The pain prevents me from
doing more damage.”
 “My knee is not strong enough. I need more rehab before testing it
in training.”  Reframe this statement to: “My knee has been
tested throughout rehabilitation and it has survived. My trainers
have told me it is ready. I am ready for training.”
Intervention Efficacy Beliefs
Intervention efficacy beliefs – this has to do with
the belief or expectancy that an intervention will be
 It is ineffective to use self-talk techniques with an
injured athlete who does not expect that it will be
useful for their rehabilitation
 Also, the sports medicine professional’s belief in the
use of self-talk is also important for it to be effective
 Arvinen-Barrow, M., & Walker, N. (2013). The
Psychology of Sport Injury and Rehabilitation (1st
ed.). Routledege.