Download Robin Tolmach Lakoff You Are What You Say

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
sculptor. To say lady doctor is very condescending, since no one ever
says gentleman doctor or even man doctor. For example, mention in the
San Francisco Chronicle of January 31, 1972, of Madalyn Murray
O’Hair as the lady atheist reduces her position to that of scatterbrained
eccentric. Even woman atheist is scarcely defensible: sex is irrelevant to
her philosophical position.
Many women argue that, on the other hand, lady carries with it
overtones recalling the age of chivalry: conferring exalted stature on the
person so referred to. This makes the term seem polite at first, but we
must also remember that these implications are perilous: they suggest
that a “lady” is helpless, and cannot do things by herself.
Lady can also be used to infer frivolousness, as in titles of
organizations. Those that have a serious purpose (not merely that of
enabling "the ladies" to spend time with one another cannot use the
word lady in their titles, but less serious ones may. Compare the Ladies'
Auxiliary of a men's group, or the Thursday Evening Ladies' Browning
and Garden Society with Ladies' Liberation or Ladies' Strike for Peace.
What is curious about this split is that lady is in origin a
euphemism – a substitute that puts a better face on something people
find uncomfortable – for woman. What kind of euphemism is it that
subtly denigrates the people to whom it refers? Perhaps lady functions
as a euphemism for woman because it does not contain the sexual
implications present in woman: it is not “embarrassing” in that way. If
this is so, we may expect that, in the future, lady will replace woman as
the primary word for the human female, since woman will have become
too blatantly sexual. That this distinction is already made in some
contexts at least is shown in the following examples, where you can try
replacing woman with lady:
(a) After ten years in jail, Harry wanted to find a woman.
(b) She’s my woman, see, so do not mess around with her.
Another common substitute for woman is girl. One seldom
hears a man past the age of adolescence referred to as a boy, save in
expressions like "going out with the boys, which are meant to suggest
an air of adolescent frivolity and irresponsibility. But women of all
ages are “girls”: one can have a man – not a boy – Friday, but only a
girl – never a woman or even a lady – Friday; women have girlfriends,
but men do not – in a non-sexual sense – have boyfriends.
It may be that this use of girl is euphemistic in the same way the use of
lady is: in stressing the idea of immaturity, it removes the sexual
connotations lurking in woman. Girl brings to mind irresponsibility: you
do not send a girl to do a woman's errand (or even, for that matter, a
boy's errand). She is a person who is both too immature and too far
from real life to be entrusted with responsibilities or with decisions of
any serious or important nature.
Now let's take a pair of words which, in terms of the possible
relationships in an earlier society, were simple male-female equivalents,
analogous to bull: cow. Suppose we find that, for independent reasons,
society has changed in such a way that the original meanings now are
irrelevant. Yet the words have not been discarded, but have acquired
new meanings, metaphorically related to their original senses. But
suppose these new metaphorical uses are no longer parallel to each
other. By seeing where the parallelism breaks down, we discover
something about the different roles played by men and women in this
culture. One good example of such a divergence through time is found
in the pair, master: mistress. Once used with reference to one's power
over servants, these words have become unusable today in their original
master-servant sense as the relationship has become less prevalent in
our society. But the words are still common.
Unless used with reference to animals, master now generally
refers to a man who has acquired consummate ability in some field,
normally nonsexual. But its feminine counterpart cannot be used this
way. It is practical restricted to its sexual sense of “paramour.” We start
out with two terms, both roughly paraphrasable as "one who has power
over another." But the masculine form, once one person is no longer
able to have absolute power over another, becomes usable
metaphorically in the sense of "having power over something." Master
requires as its object only the name of some activity, something
inanimate and abstract. But mistress requires a masculine noun in the
possessive to precede it. One cannot say: "Rhonda is a mistress." One
must be someone's mistress. A man is defined by what he does, a
woman by her sexuality, that is, in terms of one particular aspect of her
relationship to men. It is one thing to be an old master like Hans
Holbein, and another to be an old mistress.
The same is true of the words spinster and bachelor -- gender
words for “one who is not married.” The resemblance ends with the
definition. While bachelor is a neuter term, often used as a compliment,