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creating Possibilities Together · Summer 2011
Close to the Ball:
European Cup Stadium in Poland
Close to the Customer:
Designer Bank in Japan
Close to the Photographer:
Fotografiska in Stockholm
Enormous Dimensions:
Anish Kapoor in Paris
What Anish Kapoor created for the art show MONUMENTA 2011 in the Grand Palais with his
World Class
sculpture “Leviathan” is beyond the artistic imagination. His immense, inflated creature made
of burgundy, PVC-coated membranes filled nearly the entire area of the Paris exhibition hall and
The cover story on the right-hand side of the page is dedicated to a
world-class work of art, the sculpture “Leviathan” by Anish Kapoor
in the Grand Palais in Paris. The enormous inflated creature made of
PVC-coated polyester fabric was an impressive example of the possibilities for modern textile architecture. The same holds true for Miejski
Stadium which, after extensive reconstructive work, has been completed one year before the opening of the European Cup in Poland.
The white cushion-like roof construction made of 52,000 square
metres of transparent PES-PVC membranes is strikingly attractive.
Before the start of the European football event next year, fans of the
first-league team KKS Lech Poznan will have the pleasure of enjoying the dependable roof covering which protects spectators from the
wind and weather.
Visitors to the Sugamo Shinkin Bank in Tokyo can enjoy the beauty
of PVC wall coverings and flooring. The lobby of the bank behind the
layered, rainbow-coloured façade is graced with colourful adhesive
PVC film in dandelion “puff” designs on the doors, walls, and ceilings
which complement the natural appearance of the floors. The vinyl
flooring not only offers the feel of the great outdoors, it is also recyclable and made partially from recycled material. In the Fotografiska
Museum housed in a former industrial Art Nouveau-style building in
Stockholm, the PVC flooring with vinyl Bolon texture harmonises with
both the black-and-white and colour photography and provides the
museum with its unique character. These are further examples of the
versatile possibilities of PVC in modern architecture.
Before you begin reading, we would like to encourage you to make
suggestions about PVC topics to help us improve our magazine
by showing the diverse applications of this plastic material around
the world. If you have any ideas or topics that you would like us to
address, we look forward to hearing from you.
Werner Preusker
Norbert Helminiak
Helmuth Leitner
Editors of PVC TODAY
enchanted visitors with its rapture of red colours.
“Leviathan”, Kapoor almost completely filled
the immense domed exhibition hall. The name
of the gigantic artwork alludes to the Biblical
sea monster of the same name, as well as the
treatise of the social philosopher Thomas Hobbes on the supreme power of the state. It is
therefore no wonder that Kapoor dedicated his
sculpture to the artist and political activist Ai
Weiwei, whom Chinese authorities held under
arrest for over two and a half months.
MONUMENTA 2011: The sculpture “Leviathan” by Anish
Kapoor was exhibited in the Grand Palais in Paris for
approximately six weeks.
ear the magnificent Champs-Élysées, the
Grand Palais with its domed roof made of
iron and glass is an historic exhibition hall
in the centre of the French metropolis. Built for
the World Exposition in Paris in 1900, it offers
a unique stage for artworks with a length of
200 metres and a height of up to 45 metres.
This building hosted the art show MON­
UMENTA 2011 which the French Ministry of
Culture and Communication organised for the
fourth consecutive year. Following exhibitions
by internationally renowned artists such as
Anselm Kiefer, Richard Serra and Christian Boltanski, the British artist Anish Kapoor had the
task of creating a work of art especially for the
Grand Palais. With his monumental sculpture
Perfect Symbiosis
The special architectural structure of the building with its cross-shaped floor plan, extremely luminescent features, and the size of the
hall presented numerous challenges to the
Bombay-born, London-based sculptor. “My
ambition is to create a space within a space
that responds to the height and luminosity
of the Nave at the Grand Palais”, stated the
artist. Kapoor precisely adapted his colossal
sculpture to the existing space available in the
Grand Palais. The air-filled creature with its
round flowing form consisted of a long body
which extended into the nave and the two
cross aisles of the building with three huge,
round protrusions. With a length of almost
100 metres, approximately 35 metres in height
and 72,000 metres in cubic volume, it is a
true giant next to which visitors appear as
tiny dots. Viewing the artwork was possible
from the inside as well as from the outside
of the object. In the process, visitors found
themselves in two worlds which could not
have been more different.
Pulsating Organism
The body of the artwork, which visitors entered
individually through an airlock, was breathtak-
Publisher in Germany:
Kommunikations GmbH
Am Hofgarten 1-2
D-53113 Bonn
Telephone: +49-2 28-23 10 05
Fax: +49-2 28-538 95 96
E-Mail: [email protected]
Contact: Werner Preusker
Publisher in Switzerland:
der Schweizerischen
c/o KVS
Schachenallee 29c
CH-5000 Aarau
Telephone: +41-62 832 7060
Fax: +41-62 834 0061
E-Mail: [email protected]
Contact: Norbert Helminiak
Publisher in Europe:
The European Council of Vinyl
Avenue E Van Nieuwenhuyse
4 Box 4
B-1160 Brussels
Telephone: +32-2 792 75 25
Fax: +32-2 676 7447
E-Mail: [email protected]
Contact: Helmuth Leitner
Total number of copies: 5,500
Created by:
Cover picture: Sculpture
“Leviathan” by Anish Kapoor
in the Grand Palais in Paris
Photo: PVCplus/Bettina Koch
Viewed from the outside of the artwork: The size of the
sculpture “Leviathan” by Anish Kapoor was revealed
most clearly from this perspective. The three huge protrusions extended into the nave and the two perpendicular aisles of the cross-shaped Grand Palais.
The enormous dimensions of Anish Kapoor’s “Leviathan”
made observers appear like tiny dots. Whoever wanted
to contemplate the impressive size of the artwork could
observe its flowing form on a walking tour.
of only eight days, Leviathan’s specific size
and structure was an exciting challenge for
our team. The singularity of the artwork has
set a cutting-edge technical standard”, stated
Frank Molter, CEO of Hightex. This also applied
to the recyclable membranes which the French
company Serge Ferrari developed especially
for this model of textile architecture. The PVCcoated polyester fabric is light, sturdy, and
flexible. Its organic red tone has a high density
of colour, but at the same time allows light to
pass through. The translucent property of the
material was indispensable for the light effects
inside the artwork.
Interim Giant
Thirty years after his first exhibition in Paris,
Kapoor returned to the French capital with
“Leviathan”. It was a remarkable show which
broke all records – including the number of
visitors. About 250,000 people went to the
Grand Palais, considerably more than in the
previous years for MONUMENTA. His next
project is the approximately 115-metre-high
sculpture “Orbit” for the Olympic Games in
Photos: PVCplus/Bettina Koch
View from the inside of the pulsating giant: The sun came through the
glass roof of the Grand Palais and the burgundy membranes of Anish
Kapoor’s sculpture “Leviathan”. In the process, the contours and supports of the roof were visibly cast as shadows on the PVC-coated fabric.
ingly beautiful and whisked them off into an
enclosed world of red colour far removed from
the bustle of Paris. Through the glass roof
of the building and the membranes coated
with burgundy-coloured flexible PVC, daylight
was transmitted into the artwork, and, depen­
ding on the intensity of light, illuminated the
vaulted area in various shades of red for which
the artist has a predilection. “Visitors will be
invited to walk inside the work, to immerse
themselves in colour, and it will be, I hope, a
contemplative and poetic experience”, Kapoor
explained about his imaginative design which
was exquisitely fulfilled. Here, as in earlier
installations such as Cloud Gate (2004) made
of polished stainless steel in Millennium Park
in Chicago, Kapoor’s work captured visitors’
imagination with its impressive use of light.
While the sun was shining, the shape of the
enormous iron structure of the roof was cast
as a shadow, clearly visible from within the
coated shell. Together with the sealed seams
of PVC covering, which ran through the tex-
tile fabric like veins, an electrifying spectacle
emerged with continuously changing images.
Visitors had the feeling of being inside a pulsating organism in this red sphere with its
seemingly endless caverns, whose enormous
size could hardly be grasped due to the feeling of diffused space. Each person experienced
this artwork differently because, as Kapoor
stated, there are no inexperienced visitors.
Each observation, each view, is influenced by
very personal memories, as is often the case
with abstract art and sculpture.
Fragmented Organism
“Leviathan” made an entirely different impression from the outside of the artwork. The
glowing red inside the huge body turned into
a rich burgundy. But not only the world of
colours was changed. The dimensions were
also different since perception remained fragmentary on the outside. It was only possible
for the observer to gain an overall impression
of the round creature by walking around it one
step at a time. In the process, new perspectives continuously emerged depending on the
visitor’s location in the large hall of the Grand
Whenever clouds passed by, the dark seams of the membrane helped to create images, penetrating the fabric
like veins. In these huge, outward protrusions, the lines
converged at a central point, but their distance could not
be determined.
Textile Architecture
Kapoor is familiar with PVC-coated polyester
membranes from other projects. The deep-red
installation “Marsyas” in the Turbine Hall at
the London Tate Modern Gallery from 2002
originated from this material, as well as his
artwork “Melancholia” in the Museum of Contemporary Art in the Belgian city of Hornu.
A leading partner for large-scale artistic projects with membrane structures was commissioned for the design and assembly of these
projects as well as this most recent sculpture
in Paris. For the installation, the company
required 13,000 square metres of membrane
which was sealed together from numerous individual pieces and weighed a total of approximately 12 tonnes. “Given a lead time of only six
months and an installation and assembly time
Bablò Screen
Bablò, designed by Egidio Panzera and manufactured by Sacea, creates an airy and suggestive
atmosphere that articulates the harmony of the area by means of light tones and transparency.
t is a multi-functional and sensorial element
that favours and supports creativity and the
demands of those who work. Made of inflatable, transparent and coloured PVC, light-
weight and easy to position, it is the synthesis
of dimensionality, functionality, sensoriality
and playfulness.
Bablò can be used as an accessory furnishing in
offices as well as in stores, hotels and airports.
Various Possibilities of Use
Thanks to these characteristics, Bablò can be
an original accessory furnishing, which can
also be used outside of the office ambience
and be perfectly adapted for commercial use
and use in stores, hotels, preschools, art
exhibits, private dwellings, night spots, airports, spas and clinics.
Welcome Nest
The inflatable part of Bablò slides out with a
simple manoeuvre and is transformed into a
welcoming nest for reading, relaxing or listening to music. The white-coated structure is
made of aluminium. The inflatable, transparent and coloured PVC interior has three portholes that can be fitted with plastic shelves.,
Swell Seating Collection
With the growth of outdoor rooms and appreciation for furnishing the exterior environment, people
have begun to look to large luxurious sofa seating to furnish outdoor living rooms. Richard Schultz
has created the Swell Seating Collection to fill this need.
It may be more difficult to reinvent something
than it is to invent it in the first place. One
familiar cliché attributes invention to need,
but oftentimes reinvention springs from less
dire circumstances. Redesign, in particular, is
driven by a generally vague impulse. Take
Photos: Courtesy B&B Italia
Robust, exclusive, functional: The seating furniture by
Richard Schultz offers maximum resistance to weather,
pollution, scratching and peeling.
he Swell Seating Collection is the only largescale modular sling seating available and
once again leads the market in innovation
and design.
The Swell Seating Collection is an impressive example of redesigning a familiar object into a newly functional form.
Ideally suited for a comfortable stay in the open air: The Swell Seating Collection by Richard Schultz made of mesh coated
with PVC.
something old and make it appear new. Yet
artists achieve reinvention and redesign over
and over again and the finest artists become
synonymous with their re-creations.
Outdoor Furniture
Richard Schultz is among iconic designers who
took a familiar object and redesigned it into a
newly functional form. The collection of out-
door seating and tables is one of the most
meaningful series on the international scene.
The finishes are guaranteed to offer maximum
resistance to weather, pollution, scratching
and peeling. The aluminium frame makes the
product both ultra-light and durable at the
same time and the seats are made of mesh
coated with treated PVC for outdoor use.
Photos: Courtesy Sacea
The inflatable elements create an airy
and suggestive atmosphere, ideal for
relaxing, reading or
listening to music.
Lightweight, easy to position, airy:
Bablò is a multi-functional and
sensory element made of inflatable,
transparent and colourful PVC.
Fotografiska is a new international platform for photography located in the heart of Stockholm.
The museum has an exhibition space of 2,500 square metres, and features four major exhibitions
per year along with 15-20 smaller exhibitions.
otografiska aims to engage and inspire a
dialogue on photography via exhibitions,
seminars, and courses, in addition to
actively working toward the acquisition of contemporary photography for their permanent
Renovated Interiors
The new museum is housed in a former industrial Art Nouveau-style building dating from
1906. Designed by famous Swedish architect
Ferdinand Boberg, the building was used for
customs’ control of goods, and is listed as a
building of cultural interest. The original brick
façade of the beautiful customs building is
intact, while the interiors have been renovated
to house the museum. In addition to the exhibition spaces, Fotografiska houses an academy,
café, bar, conference rooms, museum shop,
commercial gallery, and event spaces.
Ideal synthesis: The vinyl
flooring with its discreet patterns is the optimal platform
for the black-and-white photography exhibited here.
Unique Vinyl Flooring
All the material and colours have been selected
in keeping with the ambience agreed upon for
the Museum, with the criteria that they harmonise with exhibits of both black-and-white and
colour photography. The flooring was developed using a particular vinyl Bolon texture: its
unique design produces discreet patterns that
cannot be created using any other manufacturing method or any other material.
Photos: Courtesy Bolon
The Fotografiska Museum in Stockholm offers an exhibition space of 2,500 square metres for international photography.
Sheraton Malpensa
King & Roselli Architetti was commissioned to design the exteriors of this large hotel in front of
Malpensa International Airport as a result of a competition-winning entry for the overall design
of the building.
Changing Effects
On the open side, these blocks of rooms accentuate the façade in an irregular sequence of
solids and voids. The solids in turn are accentuated by a series of thick sculptural PVC black-
The Sheraton Milan Malpensa Airport Hotel & Conference Centre designed by King & Roselli Architetti is located in front of Malpensa International Airport.
Though normally considered an item of interior
design, the black-out PVC curtains were seen
as an integral part of the façade from an early
stage. The regularity on the mullion and tran-
som grid is syncopated by the irregularity of the
curtains seen through extra-clear glass.
The reflective PVC curtains mirror the external lighting conditions and create constantly changing effects.
out curtains which give both depth and dynamics to the overall elevation. The folded shell
alternates with the glass transparency of the
enclosed volumes in which the reflective curtains mirror the external lighting conditions to
produce a building that is constantly changing.
Thick sculptural PVC
black-out curtains are
an integral part of the
façade of the new Sheraton Hotel at Malpensa
Photos: Santi Caleca
espite its size (420m long, 64m wide,
21m high) the building was conceived as
a design object. It was created because
Milan is Italy’s design capital and because King
& Roselli were interested in investigating the
technical and architectural properties of a skin
or membrane to be perceived dynamically as
a façade, not only on its four sides, but also
on the roof, which is visible from the access
road to the airport complex. The hotel has 436
rooms, a conference centre, and a spa accessible directly from the airport.
Three elliptical skylights allow natural
light to pour into the lobby from the third
floor. The light is transmitted via clear
curved glass tubes which pass through
the floors and ceilings.
Colourful Design
feel of the outdoors. “I hoped that people
would come to the bank not only because
they have to go to the bank, but as a place to
take a break – like a public park”, Moureaux
states. The vinyl flooring not only offers the
feel of the great outdoors, it is also recyclable
and made partially from recycled material. The
planks are easily installed over existing floors
with little or no surface preparation.
Horizontal layers of rainbow coloured panels peek out from the façade to welcome visitors to the
Shimura branch of the Sugamo Shinkin Bank in Tokyo, designed by Tokyo-based French architect
Emmanuelle Moureaux. Vinyl flooring in oak and chestnut finish and adhesive coloured PVC film
provide the bank with refreshing elegance.
Natural light pours into all floors of the bank through the elliptical skylights. Together with the vinyl flooring, it creates a
bright and friendly atmosphere.
imagined a lot of layers piled up to the sky,”
explains Moureaux. “That’s why the layers
at the top of the bank are in a gradation of
blues, and the highest layer is a light blue like
the sky in order to flow together with the sky.”
Each panel is white with colour applied only to
the bottom surface which is visible from below.
“The site was very noisy on a big street with
lots of cars and high-rise buildings,” Moureaux
states. “I decided to create a building where
people naturally look up to the sky.” The twelve
coloured panels on the façade of the building
conjure up fantastic images in purples, greens,
and blues depending on the season and time of
day. Upon entering the building, visitors spontaneously gaze up to see the ceiling adorned
with dandelion “puff ” motifs which gently float
across space, creating a sensation of lightness
and providing customers with a relaxed feeling. On the third floor, three elliptical skylights
allow natural light to pour into the lobby which
flows via clear curved glass tubes through the
floors and ceilings.
The twelve colourful panels at the Shimura branch of the
Sugamo Shinkin Bank in Tokyo conjure up fantastic images
in purples, greens, and blues. The use of horizontal layering divides and creates space by means of colours and
gives the impression of multiple floors.
Dandelion “Puff” Design
The walls of the bank lobby are decorated
in white PVC film, while the ATM machines,
doors, ceilings and walls on each floor are
graced with colourful adhesive PVC film in
dandelion “puff ” designs and complement the
natural appearance of the flooring. The advantage of PVC film is its simple maintenance and
easy replacement in the event of damage or
wear. The natural motifs can also be easily
altered to introduce new ideas and refreshing
The ATM machines, doors, ceilings and walls on
each floor are graced with colourful adhesive PVC
film in dandelion “puff ” designs. In addition, the
vinyl flooring in wood finish offers the feel of the
great outdoors.
Wellness Sky
The building named “Danube Flower” was built some thirty-five years ago to become a landmark
on the Belgrade waterfront. It used to house an exclusive restaurant which was a segment of a
larger recreational centre accessible to the public.
he project was sponsored by the communist government at that time and endorsed
by the then ubiquitous president Tito, who
was the first guest at the restaurant on November 22nd 1973. In many ways, the building is
special because of its synthesis of architectural
and structural logic. The main volume of the
building, triangular in plan, is elevated some fifteen metres above the river and the ground level
PVC ceilings create a light and spacious atmosphere designed in a sequence of geome­
tric transformations and subdivisions.
with the pedestrian esplanade. It is supported
solely by the central core which contains two
elevator shafts and a double spiral staircase.
Cantilevers stretch out some twelve metres
which give a feeling of levitation to the building.
In addition, one more structural feature is crucial for the seamless interaction between the
exterior and interior of the building. A concrete
floor-slab and ceiling shell are not connected at
Photos: Nacasa & Partners
Bright and Friendly Atmosphere
Inspired by traditional Japanese sliding screens,
Moureaux makes use of horizontal layering to
divide and create space through colours. This
technique is evident in the colourful layering
of the façade which gives the impression of
height and multiple floors. The first storey of
the Sugamo Shinkin Bank is furnished with
ATM machines, teller windows, consultation
booths, and a waiting room. The second floor
houses private meeting rooms, offices and a
cafeteria, while the third floor is reserved for
staff use. Vinyl flooring in oak and chestnut
finish provides the bright and spacious rooms
with the richness of wood texture. The natural
environment is enhanced by the dandelion
“puff ” motifs and the open skylights for a
Located at Hakwoon
Park with its forests and
apartment complexes, the
Open Pavilion is a place
to rest where people can
come together in a miniature stadium-like setting.
The Open Pavilion named “jung-ja” by Korean architects of
Mass Studies is part of the Anyang Public Art Project in Korea. It
functions as a “Public Living Room”.
Open Pavilion
The Open Pavilion, designed by Korean architects of Mass Studies, was constructed as part of the
Anyang Public Art Project in Anyang, Korea. Nestled within the park, the Open Pavilion is a place to
rest as well as a gathering place, a new kind of pavilion, named “jung-ja”.
several apartment complexes. Whereas traditional pavilions are extroverted, this pavilion
is introverted. It brings people together in a
miniature stadium-like setting, where 70 seats,
stacked on four levels, radiate from a central
focal point. Though it is open to the public, the
structure functions as a “Public Living Room”,
encouraging intimate social interactions.
Sphere-Like Structure
The lower seating portion and the upper roof
portion of the pavilion are integrated into a
single structural system, which takes the form
of an oversized chain net. Created through the
repetition of steel tube arcs of various shapes
and sizes, the flattened sphere-like structure is
To keep out the sun and rain,
the upper half of the Open
Pavilion is designed with a
translucent membrane roof
made of PVC tarpaulin.
the perimeter of the building, allowing for the
continuity of the glass façade to its full extent.
Photos: Ana Kostic
Like Entering a Cloud
Serbian 4of7 Architects have defined the Sky
Wellness concept suggesting that this place
should be light and spacious so that visitors
get the impression of entering a cloud upon
arrival. In response they have opted for reflective resin floor finishes throughout and a semitranslucent PVC stretch ceiling; both aim to
expose sleek forms of training equipment in
the open-plan arrangement.
firm and stable. The seating area in the lower
half may be conceived of as a reconfiguration
of bent steel tube chairs in collective form,
whose interlocking parts act as links in a chain.
Between these links, hammocks are installed
to accommodate seating. The upper half of the
structure is designed to support a suspended
translucent membrane roof to keep out the
sun and rain.
Geodesic Dome
The large parasol on the upper half of the
structure is made of PVC tarpaulin and is fixed
to the steel frame by a wire. The parasol was
created by draping tarpaulin panels in the form
of a geodesic dome.
Photos: Courtesy Kyungsub Shin
raditionally, a “jung-ja” overlooks a beautiful natural landscape, but the Hakwoon
Park site, where the Open Pavilion is
located, is surrounded by forests adjacent to
New Spatial Expression
Originally, the building was planned on a grid
of 7.3m equilateral triangles which defined
its organizational and structural regularity, but
now with a different brief we were looking for
a change. The defining moment of the new
spatial expression is the PVC ceiling. Its design
is a sequence of geometric transformations and
subdivision applied to the original grid. As a
result, approximately 390 backlit panels with a
finite variation in shape and size are suspended
from the triangular steel construction.
The building “Danube
Flower” on the Belgrade waterfront, built some thirty-five
years ago, is characterised
by its triangular shape and is
elevated some fifteen metres
above the river.
Like entering a
cloud: Serbian 4of7
Architects decided
on semi-translucent
PVC ceilings for the
Sky Wellness concept
inside the “Danube
The Women’s World Cup has recently come to
an exciting finish, and the countdown for the
next major sporting event has begun: the Men’s
European Cup in Poland and the Ukraine. Miejski Stadium in Poznan was the first stadium to
be completed as the venue for football matches
in Poland. The white roofing membrane made
Ready for the Games
of PVC-coated polyester fabric is considered a
symbol of the enormous reconstructed arena.
Ready for the start of the European Cup 2012: Miejski Stadium in Poland. The white roof made of PVC-coated polyester fabric is a symbol of the modern structure.
order to achieve this, one of the stands had
to be torn down and completely rebuilt. Two
additional sections of stands were raised to
make room for more seats. The installation
of two enormous 160-square-metre outdoor
screens provides an unobstructed view of the
action on the field from every section of the
White-Cushion Appearance
After expansion of the stadium, the venue
of home team Lech Poznan received a com-
plete roof covering. Now even football fans in
the first row can enjoy dependable protection
from the weather under the roof with a surface area of 52,000 square metres. The white,
cushion-like padded structure reminds fans of
the Allianz Arena in Munich, another example
of the fascinating possibilities of textile architecture. The membranes in Poznan Stadium
consist of PVC-coated polyester fabric and
are supported by a steel framework made of
more than 28,000 rods and over 16,500 joints.
The membranes manufactured by Mehler Tex-
The roof of the completely modernised Miejski Stadium with its
cushion-like structure is reminiscent of the Allianz Arena in Munich.
Crucial Test Passed
Last September, the modernised stadium in
Poznan passed the first stress test at the open-
Bird’s-eye view of the stadium in Poznan: An abundance of natural light is transmitted into the arena
through the trans­lucent membranes and the open space in the middle.
The PVC-coated membranes of the Polish stadium
rest on a steel framework and protect even the first
row of seats.
ing concert of the British rock artist Sting. It
was a good preparation for the crowds which
will pour into the stadium for the European
Cup where three preliminary-round games will
be played.
The new football venue Miejski Stadium successfully shows that modernisation and preserving local architecture are worthwhile. Of the
four European Cup stadiums in Poland, Miejski
Stadium is the only one which was planned and
reconstructed by Polish businesses. The results
are more than impressive.
A fascinating view after twilight:
the illuminated Miejski Stadium in Poznan.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Schweizerischen PVC-Industrie
Photos: Marek Kaczmarczyk,
Photo stadium inside: Przemyslaw Macioch, Mehler Texnologies
oland is the co-host of the European Cup
2012 and is currently building three new
football stadiums in Warsaw, Wroclaw,
and Gdansk. Open to the public in 1980, the
Miejski Stadium in Poznan is the only one to
be reconstructed in preparation for the major
sporting event since it had too few seats for
spectators. In the process, three requirements had to be met: the longevity of the
structure, its functionality, and aesthetics to
keep people fascinated.
The extensive modernisation work began in
2004. The goal was the expansion of stadium capacity to 46,500 spectators which
meant almost twice the number of fans. In
nologies GmbH weigh only 1,350 grams per
square metre. These lightweight membranes
along with the enormous mechanical stability of the textile fabric provide a filigree roof
structure with an extremely vibrant appearance: an example of the design possibilities
offered by this material. The membranes are
coated with varnish to protect them from UVrays and microbial infestation. This increases the longevity of the material, reduces its
susceptibility to dirt, and facilitates cleaning.
Since the membranes are translucent, they
allow enough light into the stadium to create
a bright and friendly atmosphere.