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Transcript
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
IMAGES:
Name: ___________________
CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER (OR TWO TO SPLIT THE POINTS)
1)2 A light year is
a) about six trillion miles.
b) the distance to the star closest to the sun.
c) a measure of time.
2)2 The Big Bang
a) created all the elements present on Earth.
b) was stuff exploding into space.
c) is matter, energy, space, and time expanding.
3)2 The largest volcano in the solar system is
a) Olympus Mons on Mars.
b) Mauna Kea on Earth.
c) Prometheus on Io.
4)2 A given star rises
a) 4 minutes earlier each night.
b) 4 minutes later each night.
5)2 The evolutionary path and lifetime of a star depend upon
a) the star's membership in a globular or open cluster.
b) the composition of the star.
c) the mass of the star.
6)2 The free oxygen in Earth's atmosphere
a) was present in the primeval atmosphere.
b) was released from the early oceans.
c) is the waste product of living things.
7)2 The Horse Latitudes are the result of
a) the Westerlies.
b) the STHPC.
c) the ITCZ.
d) the polar front.
8)2 The “solar neutrino problem” was resolved because
a) neutrinos experience time.
b) long days in Sudbury allow longer collection times
c) an improvement in nuclear fusion theory.
9)2 Temperature is essentially a measure of gas molecules’
a) size.
b) speed.
c) mass.
Final Exam
AOD 12/19/2007
10)2 Earth's geologic activity is driven by
a) heat within the Earth that is left over from formation and created by radioactive decay.
b) heat from the sun being absorbed by the surface.
c) the moon's tidal forces.
11)2 Evidence from Type I A supernovae indicates that
a) our galaxy is expanding
b) the local group of galaxies is expanding
c) the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.
12)2 The Hubble Law
a) states that Lloyds of London is financially liable for the Hubble Space Telescope.
b) relates a star's mass to its luminosity
c) relates an object's distance to its redshift.
       
13)2 The moon that rises at 12 am (midnight) is
a) new.
b) 1st Quarter.
c) 3rd Quarter.
d) Full.
   ;
      
    .
  
14)2 Cosmological theory
a) can mathematically "see" back only to 10-43 seconds after the Big Bang.
b) can mathematically "see" back only to 0.1 seconds after the Big Bang.
c) can mathematically "see" back only to 30,000 years after the Big Bang.
15)2 The most abundant gas in Mars’ and Venus’ atmospheres is
a) O2 (free oxygen)
b) N2 (free nitrogen)
c) CO2 (carbon dioxide)
d) Liquid H2O
16)2 In the Southern hemisphere, moving objects
a) are deflected upward.
b) are deflected downward.
c) are deflected toward their left.
d) are deflected toward their right.
17)2 The most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere is
a) N2 (free nitrogen)
b) O2 (free oxygen)
c) CO2 (carbon dioxide)
d) Liquid H2O
18)2 Before the end of the Planck Time
a) spacetime was separate from matter-energy.
b) space, time, energy, and matter were all separate and distinct.
c) space, time, energy, and matter were all the same “stuff” called quantum foam.
Page 2
Final Exam
AOD 12/19/2007
19)6 Complete the following table:
CELESTIAL
EVENT
DEFINITION
VERNAL
SUN ON CELESTIAL EQUATOR
EQUINOX
MOVING NORTH
SUMMER
SOLSTICE
SUN AT NORTHERNMOST POINT
AUTUMNAL
SUN ON CELESTIAL EQUATOR
EQUINOX
MOVING SOUTH
WINTER
SOLSTICE
SUN AT SOUTHERNMOST POINT
α
δ
SUBSOLAR
LATITUDE
CONSTELLATION
DATE
0h
0°
Equator
Pisces
3/21
6h
+23.5°
Tropic of
Cancer
Taurus
6/21
12h
0°
Equator
Virgo
9/21
18h
-23.5°
Tropic of
Capricorn
Sagittarius
12/21
20)6 Explain what gets “squeezed out” of a normal gas to create the weird state of matter (name it,
describe its weirdness and cite the name & location of an example) that forms a
a) white dwarf star
A white dwarf is a degenerate electron gas where the space has been squeezed out from
between all the atoms so they’re all crammed together. One white dwarf is in the middle
of the Ring Nebula in Lyra.
b) neutron star
A neutron star is a degenerate neutron gas where the space has been squeezed out from
+
within the atoms and the e crammed into the p making neutrons that are packed as
close as possible. One ns is the pulsar in the Crab Nebula in Taurus.
c) black hole.
A black hole is where the matter has been “squeezed out of space
so that even light cannot escape. One is suspected as the source
of Cyg X-1, a bright X-ray source in Cygnus.
Page 3
Final Exam
AOD 12/19/2007
21)10 According to current theories that we’ve discussed, describe the origin (time,place and process) of
a)2 the protons in your brain.
By 0.001 seconds after time began, all the protons in my brain were created
from the quarks that arose from the energy of the Big Bang.
b)2 the carbon nuclei in your tongue (from the hydrogen and helium that were the only elements in the
early universe … Does your tongue taste like star stuff?)
In the core of a sun-sized star, helium was fused into the carbon now in my tongue.
The carbon was spread into interstellar space by a planetary nebula.
c)2 the iron nuclei that are carrying oxygen from your lungs to your brain as you write this exam.
In the explosion of a giant star, a supernova, iodine was fused from lighter elements.
d)4 the free oxygen in your next breath that came to compose 21% of Earth’s atmosphere from the
original CO2 atmosphere (4 steps)
Initially, the Earth’s atmosphere was mostly CO2. When the oceans condensed, the
water absorbed the CO2 and locked it into the rocks like calcium carbonate. Living
critters (cyanobacteria) then filled the oceans and filled the atmosphere with their
waste gas, oxygen that I’m breathing.
22)6 How is the universe like a raisin bread? State and explain the two data that gave rise to this theory.
What later datum was both predicted by the theory and unexpectedly observed by Penzias and Wilson at
Bell Lab so that it is one of the supporting pillars of the theory.
The universe is like a raisin bread because space is expanding, pushing the galaxies
farther apart. They are not moving through space but with it.
The original data are: All galaxies are redshifted (moving away from us) and the more
distant galaxies are redshifted more (moving away from us faster)
The cosmic background radiation (CBR) was predicted by Big Bang theory and
detected by Penzias and Wilson.
Page 4