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Kingdom (?) Protista
General Characteristics
 Most diverse kingdom, contains
organisms that cannot be classified in
other kingdoms
 Eukaryotes with little or no cell
specialization
 Trophism - Hetero- or autotrophic
Kingdom Protista
General Characteristics
 Growth pattern – unicellular (most), colonial, or
multi-cellular / filamentous
Kingdom Protista
General Characteristics
 Habitat – watery environments: aquatic
(freshwater or marine), terrestrial (moist), host or
vector (parasitic)
Kingdom Protista
General Characteristics
 Reproduction
 Asexual: many use binary fission, some use
multiple fission (more than two offspring
produced); fragmentation & regeneration
Binary fission video in Euglena – Utube
Binary fission video – Paramecium - UTube
Kingdom Protista
General Characteristics
 Reproduction
 Sexual – many use conjugation (four
genetically different offspring produced)
Paramecium
conjugation 
exchange of
micronuclei
 conjugation tubes 
Zygotes develop into
thick walled, resistant
zygospores.
Alternation of Generations – Multicellular Algae
*Draw this on your notes! *
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Mitosis used in every step except formation of spores.
Kingdom Protista
Evolution
 Similarities to bacteria suggest evolution from
prokaryotes through endosymbiosis or in-folding
 Resemble the likely ancestors of animals, plants, and
fungi, which are multicellular and have a higher
degree of cell specialization (many tissues & organs)
Kingdom Protista - Classification
 Three large
categories/subkingdoms based
mainly on
trophism:
 animal-like
 plant-like
 fungus-like
Photosynthetic Protists
Symbioses with
Cnidarians
Some anemones, corals, and jellyfish
have symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae )
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