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• BiDi
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Opto-isolator - Bidirectional opto-isolators
1
The simplest bidirectional opto-isolator is
merely a pair of LEDs placed face to face
and held together with heat-shrink tubing
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Opto-isolator - Bidirectional opto-isolators
Visible spectrum LEDs have relatively
poor transfer efficiency, thus near infrared
spectrum GaAs, GaAs:Si and AlGaAs:Si
LEDs are the preferred choice for
bidirectional devices. Bidirectional optoisolators built around pairs of GaAs:Si
LEDs have current transfer ratio of around
0.06% in either photovoltaic or
photoconductive mode — less than
photodiode-based isolators, but
sufficiently practical for real-world
applications.
1
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Travel medicine - Mortality and morbidity
1
Mortality studies indicate that cardiovascular
disease accounts for most deaths during
travel (50-70%), while injury and accident
follow (~25%). Infectious disease accounts
for about 2.8-4% of deaths during/from travel.
Morbidity studies suggest that about half of
people from a developed country who stay
one month in a developing country will get
sick. Traveler's diarrhea is the most common
problem encountered.
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Rendering (computer graphics) - The bidirectional reflectance distribution function
The 'bidirectional reflectance
distribution function' (BRDF)
expresses a simple model of light
interaction with a surface as follows:
1
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Rendering (computer graphics) - The bidirectional reflectance distribution function
1
Light interaction is often approximated by
the even simpler models: diffuse reflection
and specular reflection, although both can
ALSO be BRDFs.
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
In the DSPD cases reported in the
literature, about half of the patients
have suffered from clinical depression
or other psychological problems, about
the same proportion as among patients
with chronic insomnia. According to
the International Classification of Sleep
Disorders|ICSD:
1
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
1
A direct neurochemical relationship
between sleep mechanisms and
depression is another possibility.
DSPD may cause excessive or
inappropriate production of
melatonin. Serotonin, a mood
regulator, is a precursor to melatonin.
As a result, increased endogenous
melatonin production can deplete
serotonin levels and may cause
depression.
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
It is conceivable that DSPD often has a
major role in causing depression because
it can be such a stressful and
misunderstood disorder. A recent study
from the University of California, San
Diego found no association of bipolar
disorder (history of mania) with DSPD, and
it states that there may be
1
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
1
The fact that half of DSPD patients are
not depressed indicates that DSPD is
not merely a symptom of depression.
Sleep researcher M. Terman has
suggested that those who follow their
internal circadian clocks may be less
likely to suffer from depression than
those trying to live on a different
schedule.
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
DSPD patients who also suffer from
depression may be best served by
seeking treatment for both problems.
There is some evidence that
effectively treating DSPD can improve
the patient's mood and make
antidepressants more effective.
1
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
1
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to
depression. As it is a condition which
comes from lack of exposure to sunlight,
anyone who does not get enough sunlight
exposure during the daylight hours could
be at risk.
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Delayed sleep phase disorder - Comorbidity
Persons with obsessive-compulsive
disorder are also diagnosed with DSPD at
a much higher rate than the general
public.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti
cles/PMC2219909/?tool=pmcentrez
1
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Body dysmorphic disorder - Comorbidity
There is comorbidity with other
psychological disorders, which often
results in misdiagnoses by medical
individuals.
1
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Impulse control disorder - Co-morbidity
1
Complications of late Parkinson's disease
may include a range of impulse control
disorders, including eating, buying,
compulsive gambling and sexual behavior.
One study found that 13.6% of Parkinson's
patients exhibited at least one form of ICD.
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Impulse control disorder - Co-morbidity
1
There is a significant co-occurrence of
pathological gambling and personality
disorder, and is suggested to be caused
partly by their common genetic
vulnerability.Brewer, Potenza(2008). The
Neurobiology and Genetics of Impulse
Control Disorders: Relationships to Drug
Addictions. Biochemical Pharmacology
'75'(1) 63–75. PMID 17719013
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Impulse control disorder - Co-morbidity
The degree of heritability to ICD is
similar to other psychiatric disorders
including substance abuse disorder.
There has also been found a genetic
factor to the development of ICD just as
there is for substance abuse disorder.
The risk for subclinical PG in a
population is accounted for by the risk
of alcohol dependence by about 1220% genetic and 3-8% environmental
factors.
1
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Impulse control disorder - Co-morbidity
1
There is a high rate of comorbidity between
ADHD and impulse control disorders.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
Symptoms of insomnia can be
caused by or be co-morbid with:
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Use of psychoactive drugs (such as
stimulants), including certain
medications, herbs, caffeine,
nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines,
methylphenidate, aripiprazole,
MDMA, modafinil, or excessive
alcohol intake.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Withdrawal from anti-anxiety drugs such
as benzodiazepine
withdrawal|benzodiazepines or painrelievers such as opioid
withdrawal|opioids.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic drugs is
associated with more severe and chronic
types of insomnia.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Restless legs syndrome, which can cause
sleep onset insomnia due to the
discomforting sensations felt and the need
to move the legs or other body parts to
relieve these sensations.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD),
which occurs during sleep and can cause
arousals of which the sleeper is unaware.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Pain An injury or condition that causes
pain can preclude an individual from
finding a comfortable position in which to
fall asleep, and can in addition cause
awakening.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Hormone shifts such as those that precede
menstruation and those during menopause.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
*Life events such as fear, stress
(psychology)|stress, anxiety, emotional or
mental tension, work problems, financial
stress, birth of a child and bereavement.
1
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Gastrointestinal issues
such as heartburn or
constipation.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder,
clinical depression, generalized anxiety
disorder, post traumatic stress disorder,
schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive
disorder, and dementia.Gelder, M., Mayou,
R. and Geddes, J. (2005). Psychiatry. 3rd
ed. New York: Oxford. p. 167, ISBN
0198528639. or ADHD
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
*Disturbances of the circadian rhythm,
such as shift work and jet lag, can cause
an inability to sleep at some times of the
day and excessive sleepiness at other
times of the day. Chronic Circadian rhythm
sleep disorder|circadian rhythm disorders
are characterized by similar symptoms.
1
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
* Certain Neurology|neurological
disorders, brain damage|brain
lesions, or a Medical history|history
of traumatic brain injury.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
*Disease|Medical conditions such as
hyperthyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis.
1
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
*Abuse of over-the counter or
prescription sleep aids (sedative or
depressant drugs) can produce
rebound insomnia.
1
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Poor sleep hygiene, e.g., Noise health effects|noise
or over consumption of caffeine
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
*A rare genetic condition can cause a
prion-based, permanent and eventually
fatal form of insomnia called fatal familial
insomnia.
1
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
1
*Physical exercise. Exercise-induced
insomnia is common in athletes in the
form of prolonged sleep onset
latency.[http://cev.org.br/biblioteca/t
he-epidemiological-survey-ofexercise-induced-insomnia-inchinese-athletes The epidemiological
survey of exercise-induced insomnia
in chinese athletes] Youqi Shi,
Zhihong Zhou, Ke Ning, Jianhong LIU.
Athens 2004: Pre-Olympic Congress.
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Insomnia - Causes and comorbidity
Sleep studies using polysomnography
have suggested that people who have
sleep disruption have elevated nighttime
levels of circulating cortisol and
adrenocorticotropic hormone They also
have an elevated metabolic rate, which
does not occur in people who do not have
insomnia but whose sleep is intentionally
disrupted during a sleep study
1
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Generalized anxiety disorder - Other comorbidities
In addition to coexisting with
depression, research shows that GAD
often coexists with conditions
associated with Stress
(medicine)|stress, such as irritable
bowel syndrome. Patients with GAD
can sometimes present with physical
symptoms such as insomnia or
headaches.
1
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Generalized anxiety disorder - Other comorbidities
1
Further research suggests that about 20 to
40 percent of individuals with attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder have
comorbid anxiety disorders, with GAD
being the most prevalent.
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Kleptomania - Comorbidity
1
Psychopathology and comorbidity of
psychiatric disorders in patients with
kleptomania
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Kleptomania - Comorbidity
1
Family history and psychiatric
comorbidity in persons with
kleptomania
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Kleptomania - Comorbidity
It has been suggested that because
kleptomania is linked to strong compulsive
and impulsive qualities, it can be viewed
as a variation of obsessive-compulsive
spectrum disorders, together with
pathological gambling, compulsive buying,
pyromania, nailbiting and trichotillomania
1
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Autism spectrum - Comorbidity
Autism spectrum disorders tend to be
highly comorbid with other disorders.
Comorbidity may increase with age and
may worsen the course of youth with
ASDs and make intervention/treatment
more difficult. Distinguishing between
ASDs and other diagnoses can be
challenging because the traits of ASDs
often overlap with symptoms of other
disorders and the characteristics of ASDs
make traditional diagnostic procedures
difficult.
1
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Autism spectrum - Comorbidity
1
The most common medical condition
occurring in individuals with autism
spectrum disorders is seizure
disorder or epilepsy, which occurs in
11-39% of individuals with ASD.
Tuberous sclerosis, a medical
condition in which non-malignant
tumors grow in the brain and on other
vital organs, occurs in 1-4% of
individuals with ASDs.
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Autism spectrum - Comorbidity
Intellectual disabilities are some of the
most common comorbid disorders with
ASDs. Recent estimates suggest that 4069% of individuals with ASD have some
degree of mental retardation, with females
more likely to be in severe range of mental
retardation. Learning disabilities are also
highly comorbid in individuals with an
ASD. Approximately 25-75% of individuals
with an ASD also have some degree of
learning disability.
1
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Autism spectrum - Comorbidity
1
A variety of anxiety disorders tend to cooccur with autism spectrum disorders, with
overall comorbidity rates of 7-84%. Rates
of comorbid Depression
(mood)|depression in individuals with an
ASD range from 4–58%.
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Autism spectrum - Comorbidity
1
Deficits in ASD are often linked to behavior
problems, such as difficulties following
directions, being cooperative, and doing
things on other people's terms. Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like
symptoms are seen to be part of the ASD
diagnosis.
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Major depressive disorder - Comorbidity
1
The 1990–92 National Comorbidity
Survey (US) reports that 51% of those
with major depression also suffer
from lifetime anxiety
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Major depressive disorder - Comorbidity
1
Depression and pain often co-occur.
One or more pain symptoms are
present in 65% of depressed patients,
and anywhere from 5 to 85% of
patients with pain will be suffering
from depression, depending on the
setting; there is a lower prevalence in
general practice, and higher in
specialty clinics. The diagnosis of
depression is often delayed or missed,
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Major depressive disorder - Comorbidity
1
Depression is also associated with a 1.5to 2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular
disease, independent of other known risk
factors, and is itself linked directly or
indirectly to risk factors such as smoking
and obesity
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Conduct disorder - Comorbidity
In this way, there seems to be
reciprocal effects of comorbidity with
certain disorders, leading to
increased overall risk for these youth.
1
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Neuroeducation - A bidirectional relationship
1
Katzir and Pareblagoev (2006) suggest
the example of dyslexia research as a
model of how this bidirectional
collaboration might be achieved
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Social anxiety disorder - Comorbidity
There is a high degree of
comorbidity with other psychiatric
disorders
1
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Social anxiety disorder - Comorbidity
1
Although the DSM-IV criteria state that an
individual cannot receive a diagnosis of
social anxiety disorder if their symptoms
are better accounted for by one of the
autism spectrum disorders such as autism
and Asperger syndrome, some people
suffer from these disorders along with
social anxiety disorder. One study found a
comorbidity of 28%, and it is more
common in higher-functioning individuals
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Social anxiety disorder - Comorbidity
1
Because of its close relationship and
overlapping symptoms with other
illnesses, treating people with social
phobia may help understand
underlying connection in other
psychiatric disorders
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Cannabinoid - Cannabidiol
1
Cannabidiol has also been shown to act
as a 5-HT1A receptor|5-HT1A receptor
agonist, an action that is involved in its
antidepressant, anxiolytic, and
neuroprotective effects.
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Cannabinoid - Cannabidiol
It appears to relieve convulsion,
inflammation, anxiety, and nausea. CBD
has a greater affinity for the CB2 receptor
than for the CB1 receptor.
1
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Cannabinoid - Cannabidiol
CBD shares a
wiktionary:Precursor|precursor with THC
and is the main cannabinoid in low-THC
Cannabis strains. CBD apparently plays a
role in preventing the short-term memory
loss associated with THC in mammals.
1
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Cannabinoid - Cannabidiol
Some research suggests that the
antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol
potentially represent a novel mechanism in
the treatment of schizophrenia.
1
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Cannabinoid - Cannabidiol
1
Researchers at California Pacific Medical
Center discovered CBD's ability to turn off
the activity of ID1, the gene responsible for
metastasis in breast and other types of
cancers, including the particularly
aggressive triple negative breast
cancer.[http://www.sfgate.com/health/articl
e/Pot-compound-seen-as-tool-againstcancer-3875562.php#ixzz2GZmg5kGr Pot
compound seen as tool against cancer https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
Cannabinoid - Cannabidivarin
1
Although cannabidivarin (CBDV) is usually
a minor constituent of the cannabinoid
profile, enhanced levels of CBDV have
been reported in feral cannabis plants
from the northwest Himalayas, and in
hashish from Nepal.
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
1
A strong inverse correlation between
early life intelligence and mortality
has been shown across different
populations, in different countries,
and in different epochs. Various
explanations for these findings have
been proposed:
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
First, ...intelligence is associated with
more education, and thereafter with more
professional occupations
1
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
that might place the person in
healthier environments. ...Second,
people with higher intelligence might
engage in more healthy behaviours.
...Third, mental test scores from early
life might act as a record of insults to
the brain that have occurred before
that date. ...Fourth, mental test scores
obtained in youth might be an
indicator of a well-put-together
1
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
1
A study of one million Swedish men
found showed a strong link between
cognitive ability and the risk of death.
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
1
quote|People with higher IQ test scores
tend to be less likely to smoke or drink
alcohol heavily. They also eat better diets,
and they are more physically active. So
they have a range of better behaviours
that may partly explain their lower mortality
risk.|-Dr. David Batty
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
1
A similar study of 4,289 former US soldiers
showed a similar relationship between IQ
and Mortality rate|mortality.
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
The strong correlation between
intelligence and mortality has raised
questions as to how better public
education could delay mortality.
1
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Cognitive epidemiology - Overall mortality and morbidity
There is a known inverse correlation
between socioeconomic position and
health. A 2006 study found that controlling
for IQ caused a marked reduction in this
association.
1
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Personality disorder - Comorbidity
There is a considerable personality
disorder diagnostic co-occurrence.
Patients who meet the DSM-IV-TR
diagnostic criteria for one personality
disorder are likely to meet the diagnostic
criteria for another. Diagnostic categories
provide clear, vivid descriptions of discrete
personality types but the personality
structure of actual patients might be more
accurately described by a constellation of
1
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Personality disorder - Comorbidity
1
Sites used DSM-III-R criterion sets.
Data obtained for purposes of
informing the development of the
DSM-IV-TR personality disorder
diagnostic criteria.
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Personality disorder - Comorbidity
'Abbreviations used:' PPD – Paranoid
Personality Disorder, SzPD – Schizoid
Personality Disorder, StPD – Schizotypal
Personality Disorder, ASPD – Antisocial
Personality Disorder, BPD – Borderline
Personality Disorder, HPD – Histrionic
Personality Disorder, NPD – Narcissistic
Personality Disorder, AvPD – Avoidant
Personality Disorder, DPD – Dependent
Personality Disorder, OCPD – Obsessive1
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Haloperidol - Psychosis and general morbidity
1
Larger, controlled studies of randomized
populations must be performed to
differentiate medication-induced from
behavior-induced morbidity before
definitive conclusions can be drawn.
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Promoter (biology) - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
1
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.04.027 About
11% of human genes are bidirectionally paired.
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Promoter (biology) - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
1
Functional consequences
of bidirectional
promoters
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Promoter (biology) - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
Some functional classes of genes are
more likely to be bidirectionally paired than
others. Genes implicated in DNA repair
are five times more likely to be regulated
by bidirectional promoters than by
unidirectional promoters. Chaperone
proteins are three times more likely, and
mitochondrial genes are more than twice
as likely. Many basic Housekeeping
gene|housekeeping and cellular metabolic
1
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Promoter (biology) - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
1
The overrepresentation of bidirectionally
paired DNA repair genes associates these
promoters with cancer. Forty-five percent
of human somatic oncogenes seem to be
regulated by bidirectional promoters significantly more than non-cancer causing
genes. Hypermethylation of the promoters
between gene pairs WNT9A/CD558500,
CTDSPL/BC040563, and
KCNK15/BF195580 has been associated
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Promoter (biology) - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
1
Transcription factor binding and modified histones in
human bidirectional promoters
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Promoter (biology) - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
It has been hypothesized that the
recruitment and initiation of RNA
Polymerase II usually begins
bidirectionally, but divergent
transcription is halted at a checkpoint
later during elongation
1
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Synchronous Digital Hierarchy - Bidirectional line-switched ring
1
Bidirectional line-switched ring (BLSR) comes in two
varieties: two-fiber BLSR and four-fiber BLSR
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Synchronous Digital Hierarchy - Bidirectional line-switched ring
1
BLSRs can operate within a metropolitan
region or, often, will move traffic between
municipalities
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Blindness - Comorbidities
1
Blindness can occur in combination with
such conditions as intellectual disability,
autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy,
hearing impairments, and epilepsy. In a
study of 228 visually impaired children in
Atlanta metropolitan area|metropolitan
Atlanta between 1991 and 1993, 154
(68%) had an additional disability besides
visual impairment. Blindness in
combination with hearing loss is known as
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Blindness - Comorbidities
It has been estimated that over half of
totally blind people have non-24-hour
sleep–wake disorder, a condition in which
a person's circadian rhythm is longer than
24 hours.
1
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Because optical properties depend
on suspended particle size, a stable
synthetic material called Formazin
with uniform particle size is often
used as a standard for calibration and
reproducibility.Formazin was first
used for standardizing turbidity
measurements in 1926. The unit is
called Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU).
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU)
specified by United States
Environmental Protection Agency is a
special case of FTU, where a white
light source and certain geometrical
properties of the measurement
apparatus are specified. (Sometimes
the alternate form nephelos turbidity
units is
used[http://www.freepatentsonline.co
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
United States Patent 5034211, Filing date
1990-10-29, Publication date 1991-0723[http://www.floridaconservation.org/code
book/2006/Deptartment_of_Agriculture_an
d_Consumer_Services.pdf Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services 2006 Codebook Chapter 5L-1:
The Comprehensive Shellfish Control
code])
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
*Formazin Nephelometric Units (FNU),
prescribed for 9 measurements of turbidity
in water treatment by ISO 7027, another
special case of FTU with near infrared light
(NIR) and 90° scatter.
1
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
*Formazin Attenuation Units (FAU)
specified by ISO 7027 for water treatment
standards for turbidity measurements at
0°, also a special case of FTU.
1
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Formazin Backscatter Units (FBU),
not part of a standard, is the unit of
optical backscatter detectors (OBS),
measured at c. 180°, also a special
case of FTU.
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*European Brewery
Convention (EBC)
turbidity units
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Concentration Units
(C.U.)
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Jackson Candle Turbidity Units
(JTU; an early measure)
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
*American Society of
Brewing Chemists (ASBCFTU) turbidity units
1
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Parts Per Million of standard
substance, such as PPM/DE
(Kieselguhr)
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*Trübungseinheit/Formazin (TE/F) a German
standard, now replaced by the FNU unit.
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
1
*diatomaceous earth (ppm
SiO2) an older standard,
now obsolete
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
The most generally applicable unit is
Formazin Turbidity Unit ('FTU'), although
different measurement methods can give
quite different values as reported in FTU
(see below).
1
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Nephelometer - Turbidity units
Gas-phase
nephelometers are also
used to study the
atmosphere
1
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Subsurface currents - Turbidity current
1
There is one additional
effect of turbidity
currents: upwelling
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Contourite - Modified drift-turbidite systems
1
Croix were studied by Stanley (1993) in
which he found an ancient analog of an
alternating turbidite and contourite deposit
and generated a stratigraphic model of a
continuum from a turbidite dominant
environment to a contourite dominant one.
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Contourite - Modified drift-turbidite systems
Stanley (1993) proposes that the
transition from a turbidite to a
contourite involves a continuous
transition from a sandy deposit to
lenticular bedding passing through
wavy bedding.
1
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Rubidium
Natural rubidium is a mix of two isotopes:
85Rb, the only stable one, constitutes 72% of it
1
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Rubidium
1
German chemists Robert Bunsen and
Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in
1861 by the newly developed method of
Atomic emission spectroscopy#Flame
emission spectroscopy|flame
spectroscopy.
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Rubidium
Rubidium's compounds have various
chemical and electronic applications.
Rubidium metal is easily vaporized and
has a convenient spectral absorption
range, making it a frequent target for laser
manipulation of atoms.
1
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Rubidium
Rubidium is not known to be
necessary for any organism|living
organisms. However, rubidium ions
are handled by living organisms in a
manner similar to potassium ions,
being actively taken up by plants and
by animal cells.
1
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Rubidium - Characteristics
1
Rubidium and potassium show a very
similar purple color in the flame test,
which makes spectroscopy methods
necessary to distinguish the two
elements.
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Rubidium - Compounds
1
Rubidium silver iodide (RbAg4I5) has the
highest room temperature electrical
conductivity|conductivity of any known
ionic crystal, a property that is being
exploited in thin film battery
(electricity)|batteries and other
applications.
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Rubidium - Compounds
Rubidium has a number of Rubidium
oxide|oxides, including rubidium monoxide
(Rb2O), Rb6O and Rb9O2, which form if
rubidium metal is exposed to air; rubidium
in excess oxygen gives the superoxide
RbO2. Rubidium forms salts with halides,
making rubidium fluoride, rubidium
chloride, rubidium bromide, and rubidium
iodide.
1
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Rubidium - Isotopes
1
Aside from 85Rb and 87Rb, another 24
synthetically produced isotopes of
rubidium are known, with half times
of under 3months; most of these are
highly radioactive and have few uses.
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Rubidium - Isotopes
1
The dates indicate the true age of the
minerals only if the rocks have not been
subsequently altered (see rubidiumstrontium dating).
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Rubidium - Isotopes
Rubidium-82, one of the element's nonnatural isotopes, is produced by electron
capture|electron-capture decay of
strontium-82 with a half-life of 25.36days.
The subsequent decay of rubidium-82 with
a half-life of 76 seconds to stable krypton82 happens by positron emission.
1
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Tidal barrage - Turbidity
Turbidity (the amount of matter in
suspension in the water) decreases as
a result of smaller volume of water
being exchanged between the basin
and the sea. This lets light from the
Sun penetrate the water further,
improving conditions for the
phytoplankton. The changes
propagate up the food chain, causing
a general change in the ecosystem.
1
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Global health - Morbidity
1
Morbidity measures include incidence rate,
prevalence and cumulative incidence.
Incidence rate is the risk of developing
some new condition within a specified
period of time. Although sometimes
loosely expressed simply as the number of
new cases during some time period, it is
better expressed as a proportion or a rate
with a denominator.
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Hippocampal prosthesis - Bidirectional communication
1
In order to fully assume the function of the
damaged hippocampus the prosthesis must
be able to communicate with the existing
tissue in a bidirectional manner. in other
words the implant must be able to receive
information from the brain and give an
appropriate and compressible feedback to
the surrounding nerve cell.W.BERGER,
THEODORE. TOWARD REPLACEMENT
PARTS FOR THE BRAIN. Chap 12 Brainimplantable Electronics as a Neural
Prosthesis for hippocampal memory
Function.
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Basenji - Morbidity
Among 78 live dogs in the 2004 UKC
survey, the most common health issues
noted by owners were dermatologic
and urologic (urologic issues in
Basenjis can be signs of Fanconi
syndrome).
1
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
The shorter the term of pregnancy, the
greater the risks of mortality and morbidity
for the baby primarily due to the related
prematurity. Preterm-premature babies
have an increased risk of death in the first
year of life (infant mortality), with most of
that occurring in the first month of life
(neonatal mortality). Worldwide,
prematurity accounts for 10% of neonatal
mortality, or around 500,000 deaths per
year.
1
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
1
In the U.S. where many infections and
other causes of neonatal death have
been markedly reduced, prematurity
is the leading cause of neonatal
mortality at 25%.
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
Prematurely born infants are also at
greater risk for having subsequent serious
chronic health problems as discussed
below.
1
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
1
The earliest gestational age at which the
infant has at least a 50% chance of
survival is referred to as the limit of
viability. As NICU care has improved over
the last 40 years, viability has reduced to
approximately 24 weeks,
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
— in particular see
[http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/co
ntent-nw/full/117/1/22/T1 TABLE 1 Survival
and Neurologic Disability Rates Among
Extremely Premature Infants]
1
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
although rare survivors have been
documented as early as 21
weeks.[http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNe
ws/story/CTVNews/20070220/baby_prem
ature_070219/20070220?hub=CTVNewsA
t11] This date is controversial, as gestation
in the case reported was measured from
the known date of conception (by IVF)
rather than, as usual, the date of the
mother's last menstrual period, making
1
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Premature birth - Mortality and morbidity
As risk of brain damage and
developmental delay is significant at that
threshold even if the infant survives, there
are medical ethics|ethical controversies
over the aggressiveness of the care
rendered to such infants. The limit of
viability has also become a factor in the
abortion debate.
1
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Correlation does not imply causation - A causes B and B causes A (bidirectional
causation)
:Increased pressure is
associated with increased
temperature.
1
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Correlation does not imply causation - A causes B and B causes A (bidirectional
causation)
1
The ideal gas law, PV=nRT, describes the
direct relationship between pressure and
temperature (along with other factors) to
show that there is a direct correlation
between the two properties. For a fixed
volume and mass of gas, an increase in
temperature causes an increase in
pressure; likewise, increased pressure
causes an increase in temperature. This
demonstrates bidirectional causation. The
conclusion that pressure causes
temperature is true but is not logically
guaranteed by the premise.
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Abiding Truth Ministries
1
The Southern Poverty Law Center regards Abiding
Truth Ministries as a hate group.
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Abiding Truth Ministries - History
1
Abiding Truth Ministries was founded by
Scott Lively, an American author, attorney
and activist, noted for his LGBT rights
opposition|opposition to LGBT rights and
his involvement in the ex-gay movement
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Abiding Truth Ministries - History
ATM has contributed to organizations
including NARTH, American Family
Association, Americans for Truth about
Homosexuality, Parents' Rights Coalition,
Family Research Institute and Mission:
America. Lively is the former state director
for the California branch of the American
Family Association
1
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Abiding Truth Ministries - History
1
Along with Kevin E
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Abiding Truth Ministries - History
The Southern Poverty Law Center
regards Abiding Truth Ministries as a
hate group. Lively has responded in his
blog.[http://www.exposethesplc.blogsp
ot.com/ HatewatchWatch]. Blogger
(service)|Blogspot.
1
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Abiding Truth Ministries - Positions and issues
1
ATM promotes its message via its Defend
the Family website. The website's mission
statement is to promote and defend the
Biblical view of marriage and family
through... education, training, and funding.
The Resources section sells books by
Lively.
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Abiding Truth Ministries - Positions and issues
1
ATM has influenced
the upsurge in
politicized
homophobia in
Uganda
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Antisocial personality disorder - Comorbidity
When combined with alcoholism,
people may show frontal function
deficits on neuropsychological tests
greater than those associated with
each condition.
1
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Earthquake liquefaction - Turbidity currents
Investigators suggested that a 60mile-per-hour (100km/h) submarine
landslide or turbidity current of water
saturated sediments swept 400 miles
(600km) down the continental slope
from the earthquake’s epicenter,
snapping the cables as it passed.
1
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Correlates of crime - General morbidity
1
Criminals probably suffer
from more illnesses.
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Morbidity
A 'disease' is an
abnormal condition that
affects the body of an
organism
1
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Morbidity
1
Death due to disease is called
death by natural causes
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Morbidity - Concepts
In many cases, the terms disease,
disorder, morbidity and illness are used
interchangeably. In some situations,
specific terms are considered preferable.
1
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Morbidity - Concepts
:The term disease broadly refers to any
condition that impairs normal function, and
is therefore associated with dysfunction of
normal homeostasis
1
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Morbidity - Concepts
:Illness and sickness are generally
used as synonyms for disease.
However, this term is occasionally
used to refer specifically to the
patient's personal experience of his or
her disease.
1
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Morbidity - Concepts
1
:In this model, it is possible for a person to
have a disease without being ill (to have
an objectively definable, but
asymptomatic, medical condition), and to
be ill without being diseased (such as
when a person perceives a normal
experience as a medical condition, or
medicalization|medicalizes a non-disease
situation in his or her life)
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Morbidity - Concepts
1
:In medicine, a 'disorder' is a
functional abnormality or
disturbance
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Morbidity - Concepts
1
:A 'medical condition' is a broad term that includes
all diseases and disorders
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Morbidity - Concepts
1
:As it is more value-neutral than terms
like disease, the term medical condition
is sometimes preferred by people with
health issues that they do not consider
deleterious. On the other hand, by
emphasizing the medical nature of the
condition, this term is sometimes
rejected, such as by proponents of the
autism rights movement.
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Morbidity - Concepts
:The term medical condition is also a
synonym for medical state, in which case it
describes an individual patient's current
state from a medical standpoint. This
usage appears in statements that describe
a patient as being in critical condition, for
example.
1
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Morbidity - Concepts
Comorbidity is the simultaneous
presence of two or more medical
conditions, such as schizophrenia and
substance abuse.
1
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Morbidity - Concepts
1
:In epidemiology and actuarial science,
the term morbidity rate can refer to
either the incidence
(epidemiology)|incidence rate, or the
prevalence of a disease or medical
condition. This measure of sickness is
contrasted with the mortality rate of a
condition, which is the proportion of
people dying during a given time
interval.
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Morbidity - Concepts
:A syndrome is the association of several
medical signs, symptoms, and or other
characteristics that often occur together.
Some syndromes, such as Down syndrome,
have only one cause; others, such as
Parkinsonian syndrome, have multiple
possible causes. In other cases, the cause of
the syndrome is unknown. A familiar
syndrome name often remains in use even
after an underlying cause has been found, or
when there are a number of different possible
primary causes.
1
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Morbidity - Concepts
1
:'Predisease' is a type of disease creep or
medicalization in which currently healthy
people with risk factors for disease, but
no evidence of actual disease, are told
that they are sick. Prediabetes and
prehypertension are common examples.
Labeling a healthy person with predisease
can result in overtreatment, such as
taking drugs that only help people with
severe disease, or in useful preventive
measures, such as motivating the person
to get a healthful amount of physical
exercise.
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Morbidity - Types
1
;Infectious diseases
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Morbidity - Types
1
;Contagious diseases
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Morbidity - Types
1
:Foodborne illness or food poisoning is
any illness resulting from the
consumption of food contaminated
with pathogenic bacteria, toxins,
viruses, prions or parasites.
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Morbidity - Types
1
;Communicable diseases
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Morbidity - Types
1
;Non-communicable
diseases
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Morbidity - Types
:A lifestyle disease is any disease that
appears to increase in frequency as
countries become more industrialized and
people live longer, especially if the risk
factors include behavioral choices like a
sedentary lifestyle or a diet high in
unhealthful foods such as refined
carbohydrates, trans fats, or alcoholic
beverages.
1
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Morbidity - Types
1
:Mental illness is a broad, generic label
for a category of illnesses that may
include affective or emotional
instability, behavioral dysregulation,
and/or cognitive dysfunction or
impairment
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Morbidity - Types
1
:An organic disease is one caused by a
physical or physiological change to some
tissue or organ of the body. The term
sometimes excludes infections. It is
commonly used in contrast with mental
disorders. It includes emotional and
behavioral disorders if they are due to
changes to the physical structures or
functioning of the body, such as after a
stroke or a traumatic brain injury, but not if
they are due to psychosocial issues.
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Morbidity - Scope
1
:A localized disease is one that affects
only one part of the body, such as
athlete's foot or an eye infection.
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Morbidity - Scope
1
:A disseminated disease has spread to
other parts; with cancer, this is
usually called metastatic disease.
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Morbidity - Scope
1
:A systemic disease is a disease that
affects the entire body, such as
influenza or hypertension|high blood
pressure.
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Morbidity - Causes and transmissibility
1
Only some diseases such as influenza are
contagious and commonly believed infectious
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Morbidity - Causes and transmissibility
1
Some diseases, such as most (but not all)
forms of cancer, heart disease and mental
disorders, are non-infectious diseases.
Many non-infectious diseases have a
partly or completely genetic basis (see
genetic disorder) and may thus be
transmitted from one generation to
another.
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Morbidity - Causes and transmissibility
1
Social determinants of health are the
social conditions in which people live
that determine their health
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Morbidity - Causes and transmissibility
When the cause of a disease is poorly
understood, societies tend to mythologize the
disease or use it as a metaphor or symbol of
whatever that culture considers evil. For
example, until the bacterial cause of
tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, experts
variously ascribed the disease to hereditary
disease|heredity, a sedentary lifestyle,
depression (mood)|depressed mood, and
overindulgence in sex, rich food, or alcohol—
all the social ills of the time.
1
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Morbidity - Burdens of disease
1
Disease burden is the impact of a health
problem in an area measured by financial
cost, mortality, morbidity, or other
indicators.
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Morbidity - Burdens of disease
1
There are several measures used to quantify
the burden imposed by diseases on people
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Morbidity - Burdens of disease
1
A disease that has high morbidity, but low mortality,
has a high DALY and a low YPLL
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Morbidity - Burdens of disease
:Standard DALYs (3%
discounting, age weights).
1
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Morbidity - Burdens of disease
1
:[http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/global
_burden_disease/DALY14_2004.xls DALY
spreadsheet]
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Morbidity - Burdens of disease
1
:[http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/global
_burden_disease/YLL14_2004.xls YLL
spreadsheet]. In the developed world,
heart disease and stroke cause the most
loss of life, but neuropsychiatric conditions
like major depressive disorder cause the
most years lost to being sick.
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Morbidity - Prevention
1
Many diseases and disorders can be
prevented through a variety of means.
These include sanitation, proper
nutrition, adequate exercise,
vaccinations, circumcision of male
infants, and other self-care and public
health measures.
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Morbidity - Treatments
1
Medical therapies or treatments are
efforts to cure or improve a disease or
other health problem. In the medical
field, therapy is synonymous with the
word treatment. Among
psychologists, the term may refer
specifically to psychotherapy or talk
therapy. Common treatments include
medications, surgery, medical
devices, and self-care. Treatments
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Morbidity - Treatments
1
A Preventive medicine|prevention or
preventive therapy is a way to avoid an
injury, sickness, or disease in the first
place
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Morbidity - Treatments
1
Treatment for medical emergencies
must be provided promptly, often
through an emergency department or,
in less critical situations, through an
urgent care facility.
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Morbidity - Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of the
factors that cause or encourage
diseases. Some diseases are more
common in certain geographic areas,
among people with certain genetic or
socioeconomic characteristics, or at
different times of the year.
1
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Morbidity - Epidemiology
1
Epidemiology is considered a cornerstone
methodology of public health research,
and is highly regarded in evidence-based
medicine for identifying risk factors for
disease
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Morbidity - Epidemiology
1
In studying diseases, epidemiology faces
the challenge of defining them. Especially
for poorly understood diseases, different
groups might use significantly different
definitions. Without an agreed-on
definition, different researchers may report
different numbers of cases and
characteristics of the disease.
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Morbidity - Epidemiology
Some morbidity databases are compiled with data
supplied by states and territories health authorities, at
national level (National hospital morbidity database
(NHMD), for
example[http://www.aihw.gov.au/national-hospitalmorbidity-database/ National hospital morbidity
database] retrieved 2013-07-11
[http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=
getSurveySDDS=3203Item_Id=1724 database containing
demographic, administrative and clinical data on
inpatient hospitalizations in Canada.]), or at European
scale (European Hospital Morbidity Database or
HMDB[http://data.euro.who.int/hmdb/ European
Hospital Morbidity Database] wich contains hospital
discharge data by detailed diagnosis, age and sex,
which were submitted by European countries to the
WHO Regional Office for Europe.; World Health
Organization Regional Office for Europe ; updated oct
2012, retrieved 2013-07-11) but not yet at world scale.
1
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
How a society
responds to diseases
is the subject of
medical sociology.
1
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
A condition may be considered a
disease in some cultures or eras but
not in others. For example, obesity
can represent wealth and abundance,
and is a status symbol in famineprone areas and some places hard-hit
by AIDS wasting|HIV/AIDS. Epilepsy
is considered a sign of spiritual gifts
among the Hmong people.
1
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
1
Sickness confers the social legitimization
of certain benefits, such as illness
benefits, work avoidance, and being
looked after by others
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
1
Most religions grant exceptions from
religious duties to people who are sick.
For example, one whose life would be
endangered by fasting on Yom Kippur
or during Ramadan is exempted from
the requirement, or even forbidden
from participating. People who are sick
are also exempted from social duties.
For example, ill health is the only
socially acceptable reason for an
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
The identification of a condition as a
disease, rather than as simply a variation
of human structure or function, can have
significant social or economic implications
1
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
1
Leprosy|Lepers were people who were
historically shunned because they had
an infectious disease, and the term
leper still evokes social stigma. Fear of
disease can still be a widespread social
phenomenon, though not all diseases
evoke extreme social stigma.
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Morbidity - Social and cultural responses
1
Social standing and economic
status affect health
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Chronic pain - Comorbidities and sequelae
1
Chronic pain is associated with higher rates
of depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance,
and insomnia due to medication and illness
symptoms are often experienced by those
with chronic pain. Chronic pain may
contribute to decreased physical activity due
to fear of exacerbating pain, often resulting in
weight gain. Such comorbid disorders can be
very difficult to treat due to the high potential
of medication interactions, especially when
the conditions are treated by different
doctors.
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Histrionic personality disorder - Comorbidity
1
Most histrionics also have other
mental disorders
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Night eating syndrome - Co-morbidities
NES is sometimes associated with
excess weight; as many as 28% of
individuals seeking gastric bypass
surgery were found to suffer from NES
in one study.O'Reardon,
J.P., Stunkard, A.J., Allison, K.C
1
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ICD-10 Chapter X - (Y85–Y89) Sequelae of external causes of morbidity and mortality
1
* () Sequelae of specified
injuries
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ICD-10 Chapter X - (Y90–Y98) Supplementary factors related to causes of morbidity and
mortality classified elsewhere
1
* () Environmentalpollution-related
condition
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Sadistic personality disorder - Comorbidity with other personality disorders
Studies have found other types of
illnesses, such as alcoholism, to have
a high rate of comorbidity with
sadistic personality
disorder.http://www.sciencedirect.co
m.proxy.bc.edu/science/article/pii/0
16517819390077T
1
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Sadistic personality disorder - Comorbidity with other personality disorders
Because of its high level of comorbidity
with other disorders, researchers have had
some level of difficulty distinguishing
sadistic personality disorder from other
forms of personality disorder. While
sadistic personality disorder itself is no
longer included in the DSM, partially for
this reason, other types of disorders
involving sadism, such as sexual sadism,
are still found in the DSM as paraphilias.
1
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Borderline personality disorder - Differential diagnosis and comorbidity
Lifetime comorbid (co-occurring)
conditions are common in BPD. Compared
to those diagnosed with other personality
disorders, people with BPD showed a
higher rate of also meeting criteria for
1
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Borderline personality disorder - Differential diagnosis and comorbidity
* mood disorders,
including major
depression and bipolar
disorder
1
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Borderline personality disorder - Differential diagnosis and comorbidity
1
* anxiety disorders, including panic
disorder, social anxiety disorder, and
post-traumatic stress disorder|posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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Borderline personality disorder - Differential diagnosis and comorbidity
* eating disorders,
including anorexia
nervosa and bulimia
1
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Exercise addiction - Comorbidity
1
An addiction, by definition, includes
repeated compulsive behaviors that
negatively affect daily living
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Psychopaths - Comorbidity
1
Studies especially suggest strong comorbidity
with antisocial personality disorder
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Psychopaths - Comorbidity
1
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) is known to be highly comorbid
with conduct disorder (a theorized
precursor to ASPD), and may also cooccur with psychopathic tendencies
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Psychopaths - Comorbidity
1
It has been suggested that psychopathy
may be comorbid with several other
conditions than these, but limited work on
comorbidity has been carried out. This
may be partly due to difficulties in using
inpatient groups from certain institutions to
assess comorbidity, owing to the likelihood
of some bias in sample selection.
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Irritable bowel syndrome - Comorbidities
Researchers have identified several
medical conditions, or comorbidities, which
appear with greater frequency in patients
diagnosed with IBS.
1
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Irritable bowel syndrome - Comorbidities
* 'Headache, fibromyalgia, chronic
fatigue syndrome and depression': A
study of 97,593 individuals with IBS
identified comorbidities such as
headache, fibromyalgia, and
depression. A systematic review found
that IBS occurs in 51% of chronic
fatigue syndrome patients and 49% of
fibromyalgia patients, and psychiatric
disorders were found to occur in 94%
1
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Irritable bowel syndrome - Comorbidities
1
* 'Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)':
Some researchers have suggested that
IBS is a type of low-grade
inflammatory bowel disease
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Irritable bowel syndrome - Comorbidities
1
* 'Abdominal surgery': A 2008 study found
that IBS patients were at increased risk of
having unnecessary cholecystectomy (gall
bladder removal surgery) not due to an
increased risk of gallstones, but rather to
abdominal pain, awareness of having
gallstones, and inappropriate surgical
indications
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Irritable bowel syndrome - Comorbidities
1
* 'Endometriosis': One study reported a
statistically significant link between
migraine headaches, IBS, and
endometriosis.
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Irritable bowel syndrome - Comorbidities
* 'Other chronic disorders': Interstitial
cystitis may be associated with other
chronic pain syndromes, such as irritable
bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The
connection between these syndromes is
unknown.
1
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Shift work sleep disorder - Causes and comorbidities
1
Insomnia and wake-time sleepiness are
related to misalignment between the
timing of the non-standard wake–sleep
schedule and the endogenous
circadian rhythm|circadian propensity
for sleep and wake
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Radiometric dating - Rubidium-strontium dating method
This is based on the beta decay of
rubidium-87 to strontium-87, with a half-life
of 50 billion years. This scheme is used to
date old igneous rocks|igneous and
metamorphic rocks, and has also been
used to date moon rock|lunar samples.
Closure temperatures are so high that they
are not a concern. Rubidium-strontium
dating is not as precise as the uraniumlead method, with errors of 30 to 50 million
years for a 3-billion-year-old sample.
1
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Chronic fatigue syndrome - Co-morbidity
Many CFS patients will also have, or appear to
have, other medical problems or related diagnoses
1
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Airedale Terrier - Morbidity
1
Like most terriers,
they have a
propensity towards
dermatitis
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Airedale Terrier - Morbidity
An Airedale's coat was originally
designed to protect the dog from its
predators—the coat was designed to
come out in the claws of the predator
the dog was designed to hunt, leaving
the dog unharmed
1
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Airedale Terrier - Morbidity
1
Gastric torsion, or bloat, affects Airedale
Terriers. Bloat can turn and block the
stomach, causing a buildup of gas. Bloat
can be fatal, it can lead to cardiovascular
collapse. Signs of bloat are gastric distress
(stomach pain), futile attempts at vomiting,
and increased salivation. Bloat usually
occurs when the dog is exercised too soon
after eating. They will eat up to 4-6 cups of
food at a time.
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Urine - Turbidity
1
Turbidity|Turbid (cloudy) urine may be a
symptom of a bacterial infection, but
can also be caused by crystallization of
salts such as calcium phosphate.
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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis - Morbidity and Mortality
1
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is not a
commonly reported infection in humans,
though most infections are mild and are
often never diagnosed
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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis - Morbidity and Mortality
1
More than 50 infants with congenital LCMV
infection have been reported worldwide
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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis - Morbidity and Mortality
Transplant-acquired lymphocytic
choriomeningitis proves to have a
very high morbidity and mortality
rate. In the three clusters reported in
the U.S. from 2005 to 2010, nine of the
ten infected recipients died. One
donor had been infected from a
recently acquired pet hamster while
the sources of the virus in the other
cases were unknown.
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
* () Unintentional: vehicle
and traffic injuries
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
* () Unintentional: falling
(accident)|falls
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** W20 Struck by
thrown, projected or
falling object
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W21
Striking against or
struck by sports equipment
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W22 Striking against
or struck by other objects
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** W23 Caught,
crushed, jammed or
pinched in or between
objects
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** W29 Contact
with other powered
hand tools and
household
machinery
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W30
Contact with
agricultural machinery
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W31 Contact with
other and unspecified
machinery
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** W33 Rifle,
shotgun and larger
firearm discharge
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59) Accidents
1
** W34
Discharge from other
and unspecified firearms
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W35
Explosion and
rupture
(engineering)|rupture of
boiler
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W36
Explosion and rupture
of gas cylinder
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** W37
Explosion and rupture of
pressurized Tire, pipe (material)|pipe or Hose
(tubing)|hose
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W38
Explosion and rupture
of other specified pressurized
devices
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W43 Exposure to
vibration
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W44 Foreign body
entering into or through
eye or natural orifice
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W49
Exposure to other
and unspecified inanimate
mechanical forces
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
* () Unintentional:
hit/struck/wikt:bite|bitte
n by person or animal
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W50 Hit, struck, kicked,
twisted, bitten or scratched
by another person
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W51
Striking against or
bumped into by another person
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W55
Bitten or struck by other
mammals
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W57
Bitten or stung by nonvenomous insect
and other nonvenomous arthropods
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** W58 Bitten or
struck by crocodile or
alligator
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** W64 Exposure to other
and unspecified animate
mechanical forces
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
* () Unintentional: exposure to
electrical current or radiation
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
* () Unintentional:
fire/flames/hot objects
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
* () Unintentional:
nature/natural
environment|environmental
1
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
** X20
Contact with
venomous snakes and lizards
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** X21 Contact with
venomous spiders
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** X24 Contact with centipedes
and venomous millipedes (tropical)
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** X25 Contact with
other venomous
arthropods
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** X26 Contact with
venomous marine
animals and plants
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** X27 Contact with
other specified
venomous animals
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59)
Accidents
1
** X28 Contact with other
specified venomous plants
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (V01–X59) Accidents
** X29
Contact with
unspecified venomous animal
or plant
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
* () Intentional:
assault/homicide
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by drugs, medicaments and biotic
material|biological substances
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by corrosive
substance
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by other
specified chemicals
and Poison|noxious
substances
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by
unspecified
chemical or
Poison|noxious
substance
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by drowning and
wikt:submersion|submersion
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by rifle, shotgun
and larger firearm discharge
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
** () Assault by other and
unspecified firearm discharge
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by explosive material
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by smoke, fire and
flames
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by pushing
from high place
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
1
** () Assault by pushing or placing
victim before moving object
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ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09)
Assault
** () Assault by
crashing of motor
vehicle
1
https://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality - (X85–Y09) Assault
1
** () Sexual assault by
bodily force
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Cannabidiol
1
'Cannabidiol' ('CBD') is one of at least 85
Psychoactive drug|active cannabinoids
identified in cannabis. It is a major
phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40%
of the plant's extract. CBD is considered to
have a wider scope of medical applications
than tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). An orallyadministered liquid containing CBD has
received orphan drug status in the US, for
use as a treatment for dravet syndrome,
under the brand name 'Epidiolex'.
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Cannabidiol - Antimicrobial actions
CBD absorbed transcutaneously may
attenuate the increased sebum production
at the root of acne, according to an
untested hypothesis.
1
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Cannabidiol - Neurological effects
A 2010 study found that strains of
cannabis containing higher concentrations
of cannabidiol did not produce short-term
memory impairment vs. strains with similar
concentrations of THC, but lower
concentrations of CBD. The researchers
attributed this attenuation of memory
effects to CBD's role as a Cannabinoid
receptor#CB1|CB1 antagonist.
Transdermal CBD is neuroprotective in
1
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Cannabidiol - Neurological effects
1
Cannabidiol's strong antioxidant properties
have been shown to play a role in the
compound's
neuroprotection|neuroprotective and
ischemia|anti-ischemic effects.
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Cannabidiol - Psychotropic effect
While there was no statistical
difference between the two treatment
groups, cannabidiol induced
significantly fewer side effects
(extrapyramidal symptoms, increase
in prolactin, weight gain) when
compared to amisulpride.
1
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Cannabidiol - Psychotropic effect
Studies have shown cannabidiol
decreases activity of the limbic system and
decreases social isolation induced by
THC. Cannabidiol has also been shown to
reduce anxiety in social anxiety disorder.
1
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Cannabidiol - Psychotropic effect
1
Chronic cannabidiol administration in rats
was found to produce anxiogenic-like
effects, indicating that prolonged treatment
with cannabidiol might incite anxiogenic
effects.
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Cannabidiol - Psychotropic effect
1
Those results have been contested by,
and contradict whose experimentation
cover the same duration.
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Cannabidiol - Dravet syndrome
1
Dravet syndrome is a rare
form of epilepsy that is
difficult to treat
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Cannabidiol - CBD-enhanced cannabis
Decades ago, selective breeding by
growers in US dramatically lowered the
CBD content of cannabis; their customers
preferred varietals that were more mindaltering due to a higher THC, lower CBD
content. To meet the demands of medical
cannabis patients, growers are currently
developing more CBD-rich strains.
1
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Cannabidiol - CBD-enhanced cannabis
1
In November 2012, Tikun Olam, an Israeli
medical cannabis facility announced a new
strain of the plant which has only
cannabidiol as an active ingredient, and
virtually no THC, providing some of the
medicinal benefits of cannabis without the
euphoria
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Cannabidiol - Industrial hemp
1
Several industrial hemp varieties can
be legally cultivated in western
Europe. They might seem to contain
very small portion of cannabinoid,
which is true in one sense.
Nevertheless a variety such as Fedora
17 has a cannabionoid profile
consistently around 1% cannabidiol
(CBD) with THC less than 0.1%.
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Cannabidiol - Industrial hemp
1% is little though
for 1kg of raw plant it
yields 10g of pure
CBD.
1
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Cannabidiol - Industrial hemp
Hemp world production is
around 30000tonnes per year.
1
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Cannabidiol - Pharmacodynamics
While one would assume that this
would cause cannabidiol to reduce the
effects of THC, it may potentiate THC's
effects by increasing Cannabinoid
receptor#CB1|CB1 receptor density
or through another Cannabinoid
receptor#CB1|CB1-related
mechanism
1
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Cannabidiol - Pharmacodynamics
Cannabidiol's pharmacological effects
have also been attributed to Peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor
gamma|PPAR-γ receptor agonist|agonism
and Intracellular signaling
pathway#Calcium|intracellular calcium
release.
1
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Cannabidiol - Pharmacokinetic interactions
1
There is some preclinical evidence to
suggest that cannabidiol may reduce
THC clearance, modestly increasing
THC's plasma concentrations resulting
in a greater amount of THC available to
receptors, increasing the effect of THC
in a dose-dependent manner. Despite
this the available evidence in humans
suggests no significant effect of CBD
on THC plasma levels.
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Cannabidiol - Pharmaceutical preparations
Nabiximols (United States Adopted
Name|USAN, trade name 'Sativex') is an
aerosolized mist for oral administration
containing a near 1:1 ratio of CBD and
THC. The drug was approved by Canadian
authorities in 2005 to alleviate pain
associated with multiple sclerosis.United
States Adopted Names Council:
[http://www.amaassn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/365/nabixi
mols.pdf Statement on a nonproprietary
name][http://www.gwpharm.com/
GWPharma- Welcome]
1
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Cannabidiol - Isomerism
Based on:
[http://arizona.openrepository.com/ariz
ona/handle/10150/184033 Nagaraja,
Kodihalli Nanjappa, Synthesis of delta3-cannabidiol and the derived rigid
analogs, Arizona University 1987].
1
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Cannabidiol - Chemistry
1
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but
soluble in organic solvents, such as
pentane. At room temperature it is a
colorless crystalline solid. In strongly
basic medium and the presence of air
it is oxidized to a quinone. Under
acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC.
The synthesis of cannabidiol has been
accomplished by several research
groups.
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Cannabidiol - Biosynthesis
1
Cannabis produces CBD-carboxylic acid
through the same metabolic pathway as
THC, until the last step, where CBDA
synthase performs catalysis instead of
THCA synthase.
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Cannabidiol - Legal status
1
Cannabidiol is not
scheduled by the
Convention on
Psychotropic
Substances.
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Cannabidiol - Legal status
Cannabidiol is a Schedule II drug in
Canada.[http://lawslois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-38.8/page25.html#h-29 Controlled Drugs and
Substances Act - Schedule II]
1
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Cannabidiol - Legal status
1
Cannabidiol's legal status in the
United States:
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Cannabidiol - Legal status
1
While the DEA Drug Schedule classifies
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinols) and
marijuana as Schedule I, cannabidiol is
not found on the
list.[http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/sch
edules/orangebook/e_cs_sched.pdf CSA
Schedule], List of drugs by schedule.
Other synthetic cannabinoids such as
JWH-019,073,081,122,200,203,250,398
are also listed in Schedule I, but
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Cannabidiol - Legal status
1
Hemp finished products, including hemp
oil high in cannabidiol, are legal in the
United States for this reason.
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Cannabidiol - Legal status
1
In other words, cannabidiol's legal
status depends on where it is derived
from, as cannabidiol itself is not
scheduled.
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Cannabidiol - US patent
The patent mentions cannabidiol's
ability as an antiepileptic, to lower
intraocular pressure in the treatment
of glaucoma, lack of toxicity or
serious side effects in large acute
doses, its neuroprotectant properties,
its ability to prevent neurotoxicity
mediated by NMDA, AMPA, or kainate
receptors; its ability to attenuate
glutamate toxicity, its ability to
1
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Cannabidiol - US patent
1
On November 17, 2011, the Federal Register
published that the National Institutes of
Health of the United States Department of
Health and Human Services was
contemplating the grant of an exclusive
patent license to practice the invention
embodied in U.S. Patent 6,630,507 to the
company KannaLife based in New York, for
the development and sale of cannabinoid and
cannabidiol based therapeutics for the
treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in
humans.
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Irritable bowel - Comorbidities
Several medical conditions, or
comorbidities, appear with greater
frequency in patients diagnosed with IBS.
1
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Irritable bowel - Comorbidities
* Neurological: A study of 97,593
individuals with IBS identified
comorbidities such as headache,
fibromyalgia, and depression. IBS occurs
in 51% of chronic fatigue syndrome
patients and 49% of fibromyalgia patients,
and psychiatric disorders occur in 94% of
IBS patients.
1
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Irritable bowel - Comorbidities
* Inflammatory bowel disease: IBS
may be a type of low-grade
inflammatory bowel disease.
Researchers have suggested IBS and
IBD are interrelated diseases, noting
that patients with IBD experience IBSlike symptoms when their IBD is in
remission. A three-year study found
that patients diagnosed with IBS were
16.3 times more likely to be diagnosed
1
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Irritable bowel - Comorbidities
1
* Abdominal surgery: IBS patients were
at increased risk of having
unnecessary cholecystectomy|gall
bladder removal surgery not due to an
increased risk of gallstones, but rather
to abdominal pain, awareness of having
gallstones, and inappropriate surgical
indications. These patients also are
87% more likely to undergo abdominal
and pelvic surgery and three times
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Irritable bowel - Comorbidities
1
* Endometriosis: One study reported a
statistically significant link between
migraine headaches, IBS, and
endometriosis.
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Irritable bowel - Comorbidities
1
* Other chronic disorders: Interstitial
cystitis may be associated with other
chronic pain syndromes, such as
irritable bowel syndrome and
fibromyalgia. The connection between
these syndromes is unknown.
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Comorbidity
1
In medicine, 'comorbidity' is the presence
of one or more additional disorders (or
diseases) co-occurring with a primary
disease or disorder; or the effect of such
additional disorders or diseases. The
additional disorder may also be a
behavioral or mental disorder.
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Comorbidity
In medicine, the term comorbid can be
either medical condition(s) existing
simultaneously but independently with
another condition; or it can indicate a
related medical condition or conditions. In
psychiatric diagnoses it has been argued
in part that this 'use of imprecise language
may lead to correspondingly imprecise
thinking', [and] this usage of the term
'comorbidity' should probably be avoided.
1
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Comorbidity - In medicine
1
In medicine, comorbidity describes the
effect of all other diseases an individual
patient might have other than the
primary disease of interest.
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Comorbidity - In medicine
Many tests attempt to standardize the
weight or value of comorbid conditions,
whether they are secondary or tertiary
illnesses. Each test attempts to
consolidate each individual comorbid
condition into a single, predictive variable
that measures mortality or other
outcomes. Researchers have validated
such tests because of their predictive
value, but no one test is as yet recognized
1
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Comorbidity - In medicine
1
# to indicate a medical condition existing
simultaneously but independently with
another condition in a patient (this is the
older and more correct definition)
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Comorbidity - In medicine
# to indicate a medical condition in a
patient that causes, is caused by, or is
otherwise related to another condition in
the same patient (this is a newer,
nonstandard definition and less wellaccepted).
1
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Comorbidity - In medicine
1
# to indicate two or more medical
conditions existing simultaneously
regardless of their causal
relationship.
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
Many variations of the Charlson
comorbidity index have been presented,
including the Charlson/Deyo,
Charlson/Romano, Charlson/Manitoba,
and Charlson/D'Hoores comorbidity
indices.
1
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
*1 each: Myocardial infarct,
congestive heart failure, peripheral
vascular disease, dementia,
cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung
disease, connective tissue disease,
ulcer, chronic liver disease, diabetes.
1
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
1
*2 each: Hemiplegia, moderate or severe
kidney disease, diabetes with end organ
damage, tumor, leukemia, lymphoma.
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
1
*6 each: Malignant tumor,
metastasis, AIDS.
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
For a physician, this score is helpful in
deciding how aggressively to treat a
condition. For example, a patient may
have cancer with comorbid heart disease
and diabetes. These comorbidities may be
so severe that the costs and risks of
cancer treatment would outweigh its shortterm benefit.
1
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
1
Since patients often do not know how
severe their conditions are, nurses
were originally supposed to review a
patient's chart and determine whether a
particular condition was present in
order to calculate the index.
Subsequent studies have adapted the
comorbidity index into a questionnaire
for patients.
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Comorbidity - Charlson index
1
The Charlson index, espescially the
Charlson/Deyo, followed by the
Elixhauser have been most commonly
referred by the comparative studies of
comorbidity and multimorbidity
measures.
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Comorbidity - Elixhauser comorbidity measure
have derived and validated an
Elixhauser comorbidity index that
summarizes disease burden and can
discriminate for in-hospital mortality.
1
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Comorbidity - Elixhauser comorbidity measure
In addition, a systematic review and
comparative analysis shows that among
various comorbidities indices, Elixhauser
index is a better predictor of the risk
especially beyond 30 days of
hospitalisation.
1
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Comorbidity - Diagnosis-related group
1
Patients who are more seriously ill tend to
require more hospital resources than
patients who are less seriously ill, even
though they are admitted to the hospital
for the same reason. Recognizing this, the
diagnosis-related group (DRG) manually
splits certain DRGs based on the
presence of secondary diagnoses for
specific complications or comorbidities
(CC). The same applies to Healthcare
Resource Groups (HRGs) in the UK.
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Comorbidity - Mental health
1
The Axis II personality disorders are often
criticized because their comorbidity rates
are excessively high, approaching 60% in
some cases, indicating to critics the
possibility that these categories of mental
illness are too imprecisely distinguished to
be usefully valid for diagnostic purposes
and, thus, for deciding how treatment
resources should be allocated.
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Comorbidity - Mental health
1
It has been argued that because 'the use
of imprecise language may lead to
correspondingly imprecise thinking', this
usage of the term 'comorbidity' should
probably be avoided.
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Comorbidity - Mental health
1
Due to its artifactual nature, psychiatric
comorbidity has been considered as a
Kuhnian anomaly leading the DSM to a
scientific crisis and a comprehensive
review on the matter considers
comorbidity as an epistemological
challenge to modern psychiatry.
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Comorbidity - Inception of the term
In due course of time after its
discovery, comorbidity was
distinguished as a separate scientificresearch discipline in many branches
of medicine.
1
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Comorbidity - Evolution of the term
1
van den Akker, determining comorbidity as
the combination in a patient of 2 or more
chronic diseases (disorders),
pathogenetically related to each other or
coexisting in a single patient independent
of each disease’s activity in the patient.
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Comorbidity - Psychiatry
Some of the models studied
comorbidity as the presence in a
person (patient) of more than one
disorders (diseases) at a certain period
of life, whereas the others elaborated
the relative risk, for a person having
one disease, of picking up other
disorders.
1
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Comorbidity - General medicine
The influence of comorbidity on the
clinical progression of the primary
(basic) physical disorder,
effectiveness of the medicinal therapy
and immediate and long-term
prognosis of the patients was
researched by talented physicians and
scientists of various medical fields in
many countries across the globe
1
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Comorbidity - Synonyms
1
* Multifactorial diseases
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Comorbidity - Synonyms
1
* Dual diagnosis, used for
mental health issues
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Comorbidity - Epidemiology
1
It is hard not to notice the absence of
comorbidity in the taxonomy
(systematics) of disease, presented in
ICD-10.
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Comorbidity - Clinico-pathological comparisons
All the fundamental researches of
medical documentation, directed
towards the study of the spread of
comorbidity and influence of its
structure, were conducted till the
1990s. The sources of information,
used by the researchers and scientists,
working on the matter of comorbidity,
were case histories, hospital records of
patients and other medical
1
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Comorbidity - Clinico-pathological comparisons
The listed methods of obtaining
medical information are mainly based
on clinical experience and qualification
of the physicians, carrying out
clinically, instrumentally and
laboratorially confirmed diagnosis. This
is why despite their competence, they
are highly subjective. No analysis of
the results of postmortem of deceased
patients was carried out for any of the
1
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Comorbidity - Clinico-pathological comparisons
1
It is the duty of the doctor to carry out
autopsy of the patients they treat, said
once professor :ru:Мудров, Матвей
Яковлевич|M. Y. Mudrov. Autopsy
allows you to exactly determine the
structure of comorbidity and the
direct cause of death of each patient
independent of his/her age, gender
and gender specific characteristics.
Statistical data of comorbid pathology,
based on these sections, are mainly
devoid of subjectivism.
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Comorbidity - Research
The analysis of a decade long
Australian research based on the study
of patients having 6 widespread
chronic diseases demonstrated that
nearly half of the elderly patients with
arthritis also had hypertension, 20%
had cardiac disorders and 14% had
type 2 diabetes. More than 60% of
asthmatic patients complained of
concurrent arthritis, 20% complained of
1
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Comorbidity - Research
In patients with chronic kidney
disease (renal insufficiency) the
frequency of coronary heart disease is
22% higher and new coronary events
3.4 times higher compared to patients
without kidney function disorders.
Progression of CKD towards end stage
renal disease requiring renal
replacement therapy is accompanied
by increasing prevalence of Coronary
1
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Comorbidity - Research
1
A Canadian research conducted upon 483
obesity patients, it was determined that
spread of obesity related accompanying
diseases was higher among females than
males. The researchers discovered that
nearly 75% of obesity patients had
accompanying diseases, which mostly
included dyslipidemia, hypertension and
type 2 diabetes. It is to be noted that
among the young obesity patients (from 18
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Comorbidity - Research
1
Fibromyalgia is a condition which is
comorbid with several others,
including but not limited to;
depression, anxiety, headache,
irritable bowel syndrome, chronic
fatigue syndrome, systemic lupus
erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis,
migraine, and panic disorder.
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Comorbidity - Research
Fortin, based on the analysis of 980
case histories, taken from daily
practice of a family doctor, the spread
of comorbidity is from 69% in young
patients, up to 93% among middle
aged people and up to 98% patients of
older age groups
1
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Comorbidity - Research
1
According to Russian data, based on the
study of more than three thousand
postmortem reports (n=3239) of patients of
physical pathologies, admitted at
multidisciplinary hospitals for the treatment
of chronic disorders (average age 67.8 ±
11.6 years), the frequency of comorbidity
is 94.2%. Doctors mostly come across a
combination of two to three disorders, but
in rare cases (up to 2.7%) a single patient
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Comorbidity - Research
1
The fourteen-year research conducted
on 883 patients of idiopathic
thrombocytopenic purpura (Werlhof
disease), conducted in Great Britain,
shows that the given disease is related
to a wide range of physical
pathologies
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Comorbidity - Research
Overall the survivability rate of
comorbid larynx cancer patients is
59% lower than the survivability rate
of patients without comorbidity.
1
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Comorbidity - Research
Except for therapists and general
physicians, the problem of comorbidity
is also often faced by specialists
1
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Comorbidity - Research
Based on the available clinical and
scientific data it is possible to
conclude that comorbidity has a range
of undoubted properties, which
characterize it as a heterogeneous and
often encountered event, which
enhances the seriousness of the
condition and worsens the patient’s
prospects. The heterogeneous
character of comorbidity is due to the
wide range of reasons causing it.
1
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Comorbidity - Causes
1
* Singular pathogenetic
mechanism of a
number of diseases
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Comorbidity - Causes
* Terminable causeeffect relation between
the diseases
1
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Comorbidity - Causes
1
* One disease resulting
from complications of
another
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Comorbidity - Causes
The factors responsible for the
development of comorbidity can be
chronic infections, inflammations,
involutional and systematic metabolic
changes, iatrogenesis, social status,
ecology and genetic susceptibility.
1
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Comorbidity - Types
The division of comorbidity as per
syndromal and nosological principles
is mainly preliminary and inaccurate,
however it allows us to understand
that comorbidity can be connected to
a singular cause or common
mechanisms of pathogenesis of the
conditions, which sometimes explains
the similarity in their clinical aspects,
which makes it difficult to
1
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Comorbidity - Types
1
* Etiological comorbidity: It is caused
by concurrent damage to different
organs and systems, which is caused
by a singular pathological agent (for
example due to alcoholism in patients
suffering from chronic alcohol
intoxication; pathologies associated
with smoking; systematic damage due
to collagenoses).
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Comorbidity - Types
* Complicated comorbidity: It is the
result of the primary disease and often
subsequent after sometime after its
destabilization appears in the shape of
target lesions (for example chronic
nephatony resulting from diabetic
nephropathy (Kimmelstiel-Wilson
disease) in patients with type 2
diabetes; development of brain
infarction resulting from complications
1
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Comorbidity - Types
1
* Iatrogenic comorbidity: It appears
as a result of necessitated negative
effect of the doctor on the patient,
under the conditions of pre determine
danger of one or the other medical
procedure (for example,
glucocorticosteroid osteoporosis in
patients treated for a long time using
systematic hormonal agents
(preparations); drug-induced hepatitis
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Comorbidity - Types
1
* Unspecified (NOS) comorbidity: This
type assumes the presence of singular
pathogenetic mechanisms of
development of diseases, comprising
this combination, but require a number
of tests, proving the hypothesis of the
researcher or physician (for example,
erectile dysfunction as an early sign of
general atherosclerosis (ASVD);
occurrence of erosive-ulcerative
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Comorbidity - Types
1
* Arbitrarycomorbidity: initial alogism of the
combination of diseases is not proven, but
soon can be explained with clinical and
scientific point of view (for example,
combination of coronary heart disease
(CHD) and choledocholithiasis;
combination of acquired heart valvular
disease and psoriasis).
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Comorbidity - Structure
There are a number of rules for the
formulation of clinical diagnosis for
comorbid patients, which must be followed
by a practitioner. The main principle is to
distinguish in diagnosis the primary and
background diseases, as well as their
complications and accompanying
pathologies.
1
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Comorbidity - Structure
* Primary disease: This is the
nosological form, which itself or as a
result of complications calls for the
foremost necessity for treatment at the
time due to threat to the patient’s life
and danger of disability. Primary is
the disease, which becomes the cause
of seeking medical help or the reason
for the patient’s death. If the patient
has several primary diseases it is
1
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Comorbidity - Structure
* Rival diseases: These are the
concurrent nosological forms in a
patient, interdependent in etiologies
and pathogenesis, but equally sharing
the criterion of a primary disease (for
example, transmural myocardial
infarction and massive
thromboembolism of pulmonary
artery, caused by phlebemphraxis of
lower limbs). For practicing
1
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Comorbidity - Structure
1
* Polypathia: Diseases with different
etiologies and pathogenesis, each of
which separately could not cause
death, but, concurring during
development and reciprocally
exacerbating each other, they cause
the patient’s death (for example,
osteoporotic fracture of the surgical
neck of the femur and hypostatic
pneumonia).
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Comorbidity - Structure
1
* Background disease: This helps in the
occurrence of or adverse development of
the primary disease increases its dangers
and helps in the development of
complications. This disease as well as the
primary one requires immediate treatment
(for example, type 2 diabetes).
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Comorbidity - Structure
1
In this case they must be
identified as the cause of
comorbidity
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Comorbidity - Structure
1
* Associating diseases: Nosological
units not connected etiologically and
pathogenetically with the primary
disease (Listed in the order of
significance).
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Comorbidity - Diagnosis
1
There is no doubt in the significance
of comorbidity, but how to evaluate
(measure) it in a given patient?
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Comorbidity - Clinical example
Patient S., 73 years, called an ambulance
because of a sudden pressing pain in the chest
1
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
1
There are currently several generally accepted
methods of evaluating (measuring)
comorbidity:
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
1
This way patients S’s comorbidity in 73
years of age can be evaluated as of
moderate severity (23 points out of 56),
however it is not possible to evaluate the
prognosis of the patient, because of the
absence of the interpretation of the
acquired results their connection with a
number of prognostic characteristics..
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
1
# Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for
Geriatrics (CIRS-G): This system is
similar to CIRS, but for aged patients,
offered by M. D. Miller in 1991. This
system takes into account the age of
the patient and the peculiarities of the
old age disorders.Miller M.D., Towers A.
Manual of Guidelines for Scoring the
Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for
Geriatrics (CIRS-G) //
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
Using this method patient S’s, age 73,
comorbidity can be evaluated as of
moderate severity (16 out of 36 points),
however its prognostic value is unclear,
because of the absence of the
interpretation of the overall score, resulting
from the accumulation of the patient’s
diseases.
1
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
1
In this case comorbidity of patient S, 73
years of age according to this method, is
equivalent to mild state (9 out of 40
points).
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
# Modified Charlson Index: R. A. Deyo
added chronic forms of ischemic cardiac
disorder and the stages of chronic cardiac
insufficiency to this index in 1992.
1
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
# Elixhauser Index: The Elixhauser
comorbidity measure include 30
comorbidities, which are not simplified
as an index. Elixhauser shows a better
predictive performance for mortality
risk especially beyond 30 days of
hospitalization.
1
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
1
For the evaluation of comorbidity the ICED
index suggests to evaluate the patient’s
condition separately as per two different
components: Physiological functional
characteristics
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
# Functional
Comorbidity Index
(FCI): Developed in
2005.
1
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
1
# Total Illness Burden Index
(TIBI): Developed in 2007.
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Comorbidity - Methods of evaluation
At the same time due to the
inconsistency in approach to the
analysis of comorbid state and absence
of components of comorbidity in
medical universitycourses, the
practitioner is unclear about its
prognostic effect, which makes the
generally available systems of
associated pathology evaluation
unreasoned and therefore un-needed
1
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Comorbidity - Treatment of comorbid patient
1
Comorbidity affects life
prognosis and increases
the chances of fatality
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Comorbidity - Treatment of comorbid patient
These side-effects are not always
considered by the doctors, because
they are considered as the appearance
of comorbidity and as a result become
the reason for the prescription of even
more drugs, sealing-in the vicious
circle
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V00-V09 Pedestrian injured
in transport accident
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V10-V19 Pedal cyclist injured in
transport accident
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V20-V29 Motorcycle rider
injured in transport accident
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V30-V39 Occupant of three-wheeled motor vehicle
injured in transport accident
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
*V40-V49 Car occupant
injured in transport accident
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V50-V59 Occupant of pick-up
truck or van injured in transport
accident
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V60-V69 Occupant
of heavy transport
vehicle injured in
transport accident
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
*V70-V79 Bus occupant
injured in transport accident
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*V98-V99 Other and
unspecified
transport accidents
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
*W00-X58 Other
external causes of
accidental injury
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
*W20-W49 Exposure to
inanimate mechanical forces
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*W50-W64 Exposure
to animate
mechanical forces
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*W65-W74 Accidental
drowning and
submersion
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
*W85-W99 Exposure to electric current,
radiation and extreme ambient air temperature
and pressure
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*X00-X08 Exposure to smoke, fire
and flames
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*X10-X19 Contact with
heat and hot
substances
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*X52, X58 Accidental
exposure to other
specified factors
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*Y62-Y84 Complications
of medical and surgical
care
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*Y62-Y69 Misadventures to
patients during surgical and
medical care
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
*Y70-Y82 Medical devices associated with
adverse incidents in diagnostic and therapeutic
use
1
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*Y83-Y84 Surgical and other medical
procedures as the cause of abnormal
reaction of the patient, or of later
complication, without mention of
misadventure at the time of the
procedure
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ICD-10-CM - CHAPTER 20 - External causes of morbidity (V01-Y99)
1
*Y90-Y99 Supplementary factors related to causes
of morbidity classified elsewhere
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Depressive personality disorder - Comorbidity with Other Disorders
Many researchers believe that
depressive personality disorder is so
highly comorbid with other
depressive disorders, manicdepressive episodes and dysthymic
disorder, that it is redundant to
include it as a distinct diagnosis
1
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Depressive personality disorder - Comorbidity with Other Disorders
1
Comorbidity of mood and
anxiety disorders: the
rule, not the expception?
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional Neutral Formatting
1
Writing direction is the direction glyphs are
placed on the page in relation to forward
progression of characters in the Unicode
string
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional Neutral Formatting
1
Some of these characters also have a
bidi-mirrored property indicating the
glyph should be rendered in mirrorimage when used in right-to-left text.
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional Neutral Formatting
The render-time directional type of a
neutral character can remain ambiguous
when the mark is placed on the boundary
between directional changes. To address
this, Unicode includes two characters that
have strong directionality, have no glyph
associated with them, and are ignorable
by systems that do not process
bidirectional text:
1
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional Neutral Formatting
1
* Left-to-right mark
(U+200E)
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional Neutral Formatting
1
* Right-to-left mark
(U+200F)
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional Neutral Formatting
Surrounding a bidirectionally neutral
character by the left-to-right mark will force
the character to behave as a left-to-right
character while surrounding it by the rightto-left mark will force it to behave as a
right-to-left character. The behavior of
these characters is detailed in Unicode’s
Bidirectional Algorithm.
1
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional General Formatting
While Unicode is designed to handle
multiple languages, multiple writing
systems and even text that flows either
left-to-right or right-to-left with minimal
author intervention, there are special
circumstances where the mix of
bidirectional text can become intricate—
requiring more author control. For these
circumstances, Unicode includes five other
characters to control the complex
1
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional General Formatting
1
* Left-to-right embedding (U+202A)
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Mapping of Unicode characters - Bidirectional General Formatting
1
* Pop directional formatting
(U+202C)
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
1
1998 ISBN 1-55939-106-5 pg 19 Asaṅga
delineates the nine mental abidings in
his Abhidharmasamuccaya and the
Śrāvakabhūmi chapter of his
Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
::1. 'Placement of the mind' (S.
cittasthāpana, Tib. འཇོག་པ - sems ’jogpa) occurs when the practitioner is
able to place his attention on the
object of meditation, but is unable to
maintain that attention for very long.
Distractions, dullness of mind and
other hindrances are common.
1
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
::2. 'Continuous attention' (S.
samsthāpana, Tib. རྒྱུན་དུ་འཇོག་པ - rgyun-du
‘jog-pa) occurs when the practitioner
experiences moments of continuous
attention on the object before becoming
distracted. According to B Alan Wallace,
this is when you can maintain your
attention on the meditation object for about
a
minute.[http://wisdompubs.org/Pages/sear
1
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
1
::3
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
1
::4
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
དུལ་བར་བྱེད་པ - dul-bar byed-pa), by this
stage the practitioner achieves deep
tranquility of mind, but must be
watchful for subtle forms of laxity or
dullness, peaceful states of mind
which can be confused for calm
abiding
1
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
1
::6
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
::7. 'Fully pacified attention' (S.
vyupaśamana,Tib. རྣམ་པར་ཞི་བར་བྱེད་པ་ - nye-bar
zhi-bar byed-pa), although the practitioner
may still experience of subtle excitement
or dullness, they are rare and he can
easily recognize and pacify them.
1
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
::8. 'Single-pointed attention' (S.
ekotīkarana,Tib. རྱེ་གཅིག་ཏུ་བྱེད་པ་ - rtse-gcigtu byed-pa) in this stage the
practitioner can reach high levels of
concentration with only a slight effort
and without being interrupted even by
subtle laxity or excitement during the
entire meditation session.
1
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
::9. 'Attentional Balance' (S.
samādhāna,Tib. མཉམ་པར་འཇོག་པ་བྱེད་པ་ - mnyampar ’jog-pa) the meditator now
effortlessly reaches absorbed
concentration (ting-nge-‘dzin, S.
samadhi.) and can maintain it for about
four hours without any single
interruption.[http://wisdompubs.org/Pa
ges/search_results.lasso Wallace, A:
'The Attention Revolution', Wisdom
1
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Samatha - Nine mental abidings
1
::(10. śamatha, Tib. ཞི་གནས་, shyiné - the culmination, is
sometimes listed as a tenth stage)
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Turbidity
'Turbidity' is the cloudiness or
haze|haziness of a fluid caused by large
numbers of individual Particle
(ecology)|particles that are generally
invisible to the naked eye, similar to
smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity
is a key test of water quality.
1
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Turbidity
Fluids can contain suspended solid
matter consisting of particles of many
different sizes. While some suspended
material will be large enough and heavy
enough to settle rapidly to the bottom
of the container if a liquid sample is left
to stand (the Settling|settable solids),
very small particles will settle only very
slowly or not at all if the sample is
regularly agitated or the particles are
1
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Turbidity
1
'Turbidity' (or haze) is also applied to
transparent solids such as glass or
plastic. In plastic production haze is
defined as the percentage of light that
is deflected more than 2.5° from the
incoming light
direction.[http://www.thermallaminating
films.com/haze.php Haze technical
definition]
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Turbidity - Causes
1
Certain industries such as quarrying, coal
mine|mining and coal recovery can
generate very high levels of turbidity from
colloidal rock particles.
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Turbidity - Causes
1
The association between drinking water
turbidity and gastrointestinal illness: a
systematic review
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Turbidity - Causes
1
High turbidity levels can also affect the ability
of fish gills to absorb dissolved oxygen
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Turbidity - Causes
For many mangrove areas, high
turbidity is needed to support certain
species, such as to protect juvenile fish
from predators. For most mangroves
along the eastern coast of Australia, in
particular Moreton Bay, turbidity levels
as high as 600 Nephelometric Turbidity
Units (NTU) are needed for proper
ecosystem health.
1
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Turbidity - Measurement
1
The most widely used measurement
unit for turbidity is the Formazin
Turbidity Unit|FTU (Formazin Turbidity
Unit). International Organization for
Standardization|ISO refers to its units
as FNU (Formazin Nephelometric
Units).
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Turbidity - Measurement
1
The alternatively used Jackson Candle
method (units: Jackson Turbidity Unit
or 'JTU') is essentially the inverse
measure of the length of a column of
water needed to completely obscure a
candle flame viewed through it
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Turbidity - Measurement
For this reason (and the reason that
heavier particles settle quickly and do not
contribute to a turbidity reading), a
correlation between turbidity and total
suspended solids (TSS) is somewhat
unique for each location or situation.
1
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Turbidity - Measurement
1
The Secchi disk has the advantages of
integrating turbidity over depth
(where variable turbidity layers are
present), being quick and easy to use,
and inexpensive
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Turbidity - Measurement
1
[http://watsanmissionassistant.wikispaces.
com/file/view/TurbidityMyre_Shaw.pdf/360203097/TurbidityMyre_Shaw.pdf The Turbidity Tube] The
turbidity tube condenses water in a graded
tube which allows determination of
turbidity based on a contrast disk in its
bottom, being analogous to the Secchi
disk.
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Turbidity - Measurement
Turbidity in air, which causes solar
attenuation, is used as a measure of
pollution. To model the attenuation of
beam irradiance, several turbidity
parameters have been introduced,
including the Linke turbidity factor
(TL).HelioClim (Center for Energy and
Processes). Paris, France.
[http://www.helioclim.net/linke/index.html
Linke Turbidity Factor.]
1
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Turbidity - Drinking water standards
1
Systems that use filtration other than
the conventional or direct filtration
must follow state limits, which must
include turbidity at no time exceeding 5
NTU
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Turbidity - Ambient water standards
(States may also publish their own
criteria.) Some states have
promulgated water quality standards
for turbidity, including:
1
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Turbidity - Ambient water standards
* Louisiana. 25, 50 or 150 NTU, or
background plus 10 percent,
depending on the water
body.Louisiana Department of
Environmental Quality. Baton Rouge,
LA.[http://epa.gov/waterscience/stan
dards/wqslibrary/la/la_6_wqs.pdf
Surface Water Quality Standards.]
Louisiana Administrative Code (LAC).
Title 33, Part IX, Chapter 11. August 6,
1
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Turbidity - Ambient water standards
* Vermont. 10 NTU or 25 NTU,
depending on water body
classification.Vermont Water
Resources Board. Montpelier, VT.
[http://www.nrb.state.vt.us/wrp/publ
ications/wqs.pdf Vermont Water
Quality Standards.] January 25, 2006.
1
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Turbidity - Ambient water standards
1
* Washington (U.S. state)|Washington. 5 NTU
over background (when background is 50
NTU or less), or 10 percent increase when
background is over 50 NTU.Washington
Department of Ecology. Olympia,
WA.[http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/standa
rds/wqslibrary/wa/wa_10_chapter173201a.pdf Water Quality Standards for Surface
Waters of the State of Washington.]
Washington Administrative Code (WAC).
Chapter 173-201A. November 18, 1997.
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Turbidity - Analytical methods
1
Published analytical test methods
for turbidity include:
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Turbidity - Analytical methods
1
* ISO 7027 Water Quality: Determination
of Turbidity International Organization for
Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland.
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Turbidity - Analytical methods
1
[http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetail
Page.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=3012
3 ISO 7027: Water quality -- Determination
of turbidity.] 1999.
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Turbidity - Analytical methods
* US EPA Method No. 180.1,
TurbidityEPA. Environmental
Monitoring Systems Laboratory.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
[http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/c
wa/bioindicators/upload/2007_07_10_m
ethods_method_180_1.pdf Method
180.1: Determination of Turbidity by
Nephelometry; Revision 2.0.] August
1993.
1
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Turbidity - Analytical methods
1
* Standard Methods, No. 2130B.Clescearl,
Leonore S.(Editor), Greenberg, Arnold
E.(Editor), Eaton, Andrew D. (Editor).
Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water and Wastewater (20th ed.)
American Public Health Association,
Washington, DC. ISBN 0-87553-235-7.
This is also available on CD-ROM and
[http://www.standardmethods.org/ online]
by subscription.
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Turbidity - Treatment
1
Turbidity is commonly treated using
either a settling or filtration process.
Depending on the application,
chemical reagents, will be dosed into
the wastewater stream to increase the
effectiveness of the settling or
filtration process. Potable water
treatment and municipal wastewater
plants often remove turbidity with a
combination of sand filtration, settling
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Turbidity - Treatment
1
This method is commonly used at coal
mines and coal loading facilities where
stormwater collection ponds have
seasonal issues with turbidity
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Turbidity - Reagents
1
Reagents available for treating turbidity
include aluminium sulfate or alum
(Al2(SO4)3.xH2O), ferric chloride
(FeCl3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), polyaluminium chloride, long chain
acrylamide-based polymers and
numerous proprietary reagents.Earth
Systems, Clear Solutions newsletter Focus on Turbidity
[http://www.earthsystems.com.au/wphttps://store.theartofservice.com/itil-2011-foundation-complete-certification-kit-fourth-edition-study-guide-ebook-and-online-course.html
Turbidity - Reagents
1
The dosing process must also be
considered when using reagents as
the flocs may be broken apart by
excessive mixing.
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
, the journal's editor-in-chief is Ronald
Moolenaar.[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/staff
/staff.html Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report Staff], Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
As noted in the sequel, some single
reports have evoked media interest also
outside health and medical contexts
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Notable articles
* The spread of Hepatitis A among
attendees of jam band concert tours
(September
2003).[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/
mmwrhtml/mm5235a5.htm Public Health
Dispatch: Multistate Outbreak of Hepatitis
A Among Young Adult Concert Attendees -- United States, 2003] (MMWR 52(35),
September 5, 2003)O' Neil, John
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Notable articles
1
* Low concerns for risks of elevated blood
levels of lead in Washington, DC (April
2004).[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/
mmwrhtml/mm5312a6.htm Blood Lead
Levels in Residents of Homes with
Elevated Lead in Tap Water --- District of
Columbia, 2004] (MMWR 53(12), April 2,
2004) The article was notable and later
criticized for not emphasizing the risks,
and now is available together with two
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Notable articles
* Several dozen deaths in teens
participating in what is called the choking
game (February 2008)via Associated
Press.
[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html
?res=9A05E6DF1E38F936A25751C0A96
E9C8B63 NATIONAL BRIEFING |
SCIENCE AND HEALTH; Count Of
'choking Game' Fatalities], The New York
Times, February 15, 2008. Retrieved July
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Notable articles
1
* A report about the elevated death rate
among fisherman in the Pacific Northwest
(April 2008)Bakalar, Nicholas.
[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/13/healt
h/13stat.html Northwest Fishery Posts
Highest Fatality Rate], The New York
Times, May 13, 2008. Retrieved July 24,
2009.
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Notable articles
1
* Improvements in public health after
the implementation of municipal
smoking bans (January 2009)Bakalar,
Nicholas.
[http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/13
/health/research/13prev.html
Smoking Ban Improves a City's
Health], The New York Times, January
12, 2009.
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Notable articles
* The initial reports of a novel swine flu
virus which led to the 2009 flu pandemic
(April 24,
2009)[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/
mmwrhtml/mm5815a5.htm Swine
Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two
Children --- Southern California, March-April 2009], Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report, April 24, 2009
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - First report of AIDS
1
[http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm
4534.pdf Pneumocystis Pneumonia —
Los Angeles], Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, August 30,
1996 / Vol
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Background
1
Between 2001 and 2003, various tests
showed that the lead content in drinking
water in Washington DC more often than
not was higher than 15 PPM (parts per
million), which was the action level fixed
by U.S
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Background
Lead is well known to have toxic
effects, especially for embryos and
small children. Even in small doses,
Lead poisoning#Chronic
poisoning|lead poisoning may lead to
e.g. permanent intelligence deficiencies
and concentration difficulties.
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Report details
1
On March 30, 2004, an MMWR dispatch,
Blood Lead Levels in Residents of Homes
with Elevated Lead in Tap Water --- District
of Columbia, 2004 was made available on
the MMWR web site
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Report details
The report concludes that the high
amounts of lead in the drinking water may
have led to a slight rise of the blood levels;
however, it claimed that no children were
identified with Blood lead level|BLLs ref
name=salonref name=salon/ref
name=salon/ref name=salon/ref
name=wapo-underrepref name=wapounderrep/ref name=wapo-underrep/ref
name=wapo-cdc-mislead/ref name=wapocdc-mislead/
1
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Response to the criticism
1
The CDC did not withdraw the report, but
in 2010 amended it with two notices to the
readers, with the following explanations
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Human parainfluenza viruses - Morbidity and mortality
Mortality caused by hPIV in
developed regions of the world
remains rare. Where mortality has
occurred, it is principally in the three
core risk groups (very young, elderly
and immuno-compromised). Long
term changes can however be
associated with airway remodelling
and are believed to be a significant
cause of morbidity. The exact
1
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Human parainfluenza viruses - Morbidity and mortality
In developing regions of the world, the
highest risk group in terms of mortality
remains pre-school children. Mortality may
be as a consequence of primary viral
infection or secondary problems such as
bacterial infection. Predispositions, such
as malnutrition and other deficiencies may
further elevate the chances of mortality
associated with infection.
1
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Human parainfluenza viruses - Morbidity and mortality
Overall, LRI's cause approximately
25–30% of total deaths in pre-school
children in the developing world. hPIV
is believed to be associated with 10%
of all LRI cases, thus remaining a
significant cause of mortality.
1
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Cervical cerclage - Morbidity and mortality rates
Approximately 1-9% of women will
experience premature labor after
cerclage. The risk of chorioamnionitis is
1-7%, but increases to 30% if the cervix
is dilated greater than 1.2 in (3cm). The
risks associated with premature
delivery, however, are far greater.
Babies born between 22 and 25 weeks of
pregnancy are at significant risk of
moderate to severe disabilities (46-56%)
or death (approximately 10-30% survive
at 22 weeks, increasing to 50% at 24
weeks, and 95% by 26 weeks).
1
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HIV/AIDS in the United States - Mortality and morbidity
Invariably, HIV is a silent disease when
first acquired, and this period of latency
varies. The progression from HIV infection
to AIDS varies from 5–12 years. In the
past, most individuals succumbed to the
disease in 1–2 years after being
diagnosed with AIDS. However, since the
introduction of potent anti retroviral drug
therapy and better Post-exposure
prophylaxis|prophylaxis against
opportunistic infections, mortality
rate|death rates have significantly
declined.
1
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Sakıp Sabancı Museum - The World of Abidin Dino
1
Between November 24, 2007 through
January 27, 2008, the museum hosted
works and documents of the renowned
Turkish painter Abidin Dino, a multifaceted artist and man of culture, who
died in 1993. The comprehensive
exhibition comprised his drawings and
writings
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Sakıp Sabancı Museum - The World of Abidin Dino
along with photographs and
documents chronicling the various
periods throughout his 80 years in
Turkey, France and other
countries.[http://muze.sabanciuniv.e
du/exhibition/exhibition.php?lngExhi
bitionID=66bytLanguageID=2 Sakıp
Sabancı Museum Web Site - Past
Exhibitions - The World of Abidin
Dino]
1
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Anhedonia - Comorbidity
1
Anhedonia is present in several forms
of psychopathology.American
Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text
Revision
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List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as antigay hate groups - Abiding Truth Ministries
Abiding Truth Ministries is a
Christian
fundamentalism|conservative
Christian organization located in
Temecula, California
1
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List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as anti-gay hate
groups - Abiding Truth Ministries
1
Along with Kevin E
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Rubidium oxide
1
The final product of oxygenation of Rb is principally
RbO2, rubidium superoxide:
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Rubidium oxide
1
This superoxide can then
be reduced to Rb2O
using excess rubidium
metal:
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Rubidium-87
'Rubidium' ('Rb') has 32 isotopes, with
naturally occurring rubidium being
composed of just two isotopes; 85Rb
(72.2%) and the radioactive 87Rb (27.8%).
Normal mixes of rubidium are radioactive
enough to fog photographic film in
approximately 30 to 60 days. Standard
atomic mass is 85.4678(3) unified atomic
mass unit|u.
1
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Rubidium-87
1
See rubidium-strontium dating for a
more detailed discussion.
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Rubidium-87
1
82Rb is used in some cardiac positron
emission tomography|PET scans to
assess Myocardial perfusion
scan|myocardial perfusion. It has a
half-life of 1.273 minutes. It does not
exist naturally, but can be made from
the decay of 82Sr.
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Rubidium-87
Even though rubidium-85 is more
abundant, rubidium-87 has a positive
scattering length, which means it is
mutually repulsive, at low
temperatures
1
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Rubidium-87
1
Rubidium-87 has an atomic mass of
86.9091835 u, and a binding energy of
757,853 keV. Its atomic percent
abundance is 27.835%, and has a halflife of .
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Rubidium-87 - Notes
1
* Geologically exceptional samples are
known in which the isotopic composition
lies outside the reported range. The
uncertainty in the atomic mass may
exceed the stated value for such
specimens.
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Rubidium-87 - Notes
* Values marked # are not purely
derived from experimental data, but at
least partly from systematic trends.
Spins with weak assignment arguments
are enclosed in parentheses.
1
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Rubidium-87 - Notes
1
* Uncertainties are given in concise form in
parentheses after the corresponding last
digits. Uncertainty values denote one
standard deviation, except isotopic
composition and standard atomic mass
from IUPAC which use expanded
uncertainties.
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Cutaneous horn - Mortality/Morbidity
The lesion at the base of the keratin
mound is benign in the majority of cases.
Malignancy is present in up to 20% of
cases, with Squamous-cell
carcinoma|squamous cell carcinoma
being the most common type. The
incidence of Squamous-cell
carcinoma|squamous cell carcinoma
increases to 37% when the cutaneous
horn is present on the penis. Tenderness
at the base of the lesion is often a clue to
the presence of a possible underlying
Squamous-cell carcinoma|squamous
cell carcinoma .
1
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List of ICD-9 codes 780–799: symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions - Illdefined and unknown causes of morbidity and mortality (797–799)
1
* () Sudden infant death syndrome
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List of ICD-9 codes 780–799: symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions - Illdefined and unknown causes of morbidity and mortality (797–799)
* () Other ill-defined
and unknown causes
of morbidity and
mortality
1
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List of ICD-9 codes 780–799: symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions - Ill-defined and
unknown causes of morbidity and mortality (797–799)
1
** () Anxiety|Nervousness
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Misophonia - Prevalence and comorbidity
The prevalence of misophonia is
unknown, but groups of people
identifying with the condition suggest it
is more common than previously
recognized. Among patients with
tinnitus, which is prevalent in 4–5% of
the general population, some surveys
report prevalence as high as 60%, while
prevalence in a 2010 study was
measured at 10%.
1
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Misophonia - Prevalence and comorbidity
1
The Dutch study published in 2013 of a
sample of 42 patients with misophonia
found a low incidence of psychiatric
disorders, with the exception of
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality
Disorder (52.4%).
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Misophonia - Prevalence and comorbidity
1
It has been suggested that there is a
connection between misophonia and
synesthesia, a neurological condition in
which stimulation of one sensory or
cognitive pathway leads to automatic,
involuntary experiences in a second
sensory or cognitive pathway.Cytowic,
Richard E
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List of ICD-9 codes 760–779: certain conditions originating in the perinatal
period - Maternal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (760–763)
* () Fetus or newborn affected by material
conditions which may be unrelated to present
pregnancy
1
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List of ICD-9 codes 760–779: certain conditions originating in the perinatal
period - Maternal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (760–763)
1
** () Noxious influences affecting fetus or
newborn via placenta or breast milk
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List of ICD-9 codes 760–779: certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Maternal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (760–763)
1
*** () Exposure to narcotics,
perinatal
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List of ICD-9 codes 760–779: certain conditions originating in the perinatal
period - Maternal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (760–763)
1
* () Fetus or newborn affected by
complications of placenta, Umbilical
cord|cord, and Biological
membrane|membranes
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List of ICD-9 codes 760–779: certain conditions originating in the perinatal
period - Maternal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (760–763)
** () Other compression of
umbilical cord affecting fetus or
newborn
1
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List of ICD-9 codes 760–779: certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Maternal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (760–763)
* () Fetus or newborn affected by other
complications of Childbirth|labor and delivery
1
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy - Morbidity and mortality
1
Pancreaticoduodenectomy is considered, by
any standard, to be a major surgical procedure.
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy - Morbidity and mortality
Even at high-volume hospitals,
morbidity has been found to vary by a
factor of almost four depending on the
number of times the surgeon has
previously performed the
procedure.[http://www.patienteducati
oncenter.org/aspx/HealthELibrary/H
ealthETopic.aspx?cid=L0409b The
Whipple Procedure] Pri-Med Patient
Education Center, Harvard Health
1
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy - Morbidity and mortality
de Wilde et al. have reported
statistically significant mortality
reductions concurrent with
centralization of the procedure in the
Netherlands.De Wilde, R.F. et al.,
2012. Impact of nationwide
centralization of
pancreaticoduodenectomy on hospital
mortality. The British journal of
surgery, 99(3), pp.404–410.
1
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy - Morbidity and mortality
1
One study reported actual risk to be 2.4
times greater than the risk reported in
the medical literature, with additional
variation by type of institution.
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Rubidium hydroxide
1
'Rubidium hydroxide' (RbOH) is a strong
Base (chemistry)|basic chemical and alkali
that is formed by one rubidium ion and one
hydroxide ion.
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Rubidium hydroxide
1
Rubidium hydroxide does not appear
in nature. However it can be obtained
by Chemical synthesis|synthesis
from rubidium oxide. In addition,
rubidium hydroxide is commercially
available in form of an aqueous
solution from a few suppliers.
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Rubidium hydroxide
Rubidium hydroxide is highly
corrosive, therefore suitable
protective clothing, gloves and eyeface protection are required when
handling this material.
1
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Rubidium hydroxide - Synthesis
Rubidium hydroxide can be synthesized from
rubidium oxide by dissolving the oxide into water:
1
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Rubidium hydroxide - Synthesis
1
Rubidium hydroxide is also commercially
available from a certain number of
chemical suppliers in form of 50% or 99%
water|aqueous solution at multiples of 5
gram|g.
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Rubidium hydroxide - Uses
1
Rubidium hydroxide is rarely used in
industrial processes because
potassium hydroxide and sodium
hydroxide can perform nearly all the
industrial functions of rubidium
hydroxide in a less violent and hence
safer way.
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Rubidium hydroxide - Uses
1
Rubidium hydroxide is used in scientific
research. It is often used sparingly to
prevent waste of the expensive element
rubidium. For example, it is used to give
fireworks a violet color in place of pure
rubidium.
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Rubidium hydroxide - Uses
Despite the fact that rubidium
hydroxide is rarely used in normal
industrial processes, it is notable that
the synthesis of nearly all rubidium
compounds involves rubidium
hydroxide as an intermediate. Natural
rubidium oxide is added to water, and
the resulting reaction forms soluble
rubidium hydroxide as a product.
1
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Rubidium hydroxide - Hazard prevention
Rubidium hydroxide is a corrosive
compound that causes immediate Burn
(injury)|burns to the skin on contact.
Ultimate care must be carried out when
handling this chemical.
1
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Rubidium hydroxide - Hazard prevention
In the laboratory, protective clothing,
gloves, and eye-face protection made from
alkali-resistant materials are to be worn to
prevent injury caused by accidental
Leakage (chemistry)|leakage of rubidium
hydroxide onto human skin.
1
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Rubidium hydroxide - Hazard prevention
1
:wikt:dilution|Dilution of this strong alkali
must be done by adding the hydroxide
slowly into the beaker of water.
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Rubidium hydroxide - Hazard prevention
1
In addition, chemical experiments on
this compound must be performed with
caution to prevent the great amount of
heat released in an exothermic reaction
from causing the solution to boil-over
or damage the vessel.
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Morbidity and mortality conference
'Morbidity and mortality' (MM)
'conferences' are traditional,
recurring conferences held by
medical services at academic
medical centers, most large private
medical and surgical practices, and
other medical centers
1
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Morbidity and mortality conference
1
Morbidity and Mortality conferences have
long been part of the practice of medicine,
having originated in the early 1900s with
Dr
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National Comorbidity Survey
1
The 'National Comorbidity Survey:
Baseline' (NCS-1) was the first largescale field survey of mental health in
the United States
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National Comorbidity Survey
The 'National Comorbidity Survey:
Reinterview' (NCS-2) was a follow up
study conducted between 2001 and 2002.
The participants in NCS-1 were reinterviewed with the aim to collect
information about changes in mental
disorders, substance use disorders, and
the predictors and consequences of these
changes over the ten years between the
two surveys.
1
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National Comorbidity Survey
In conjunction with the NCS-2, two
other surveys were done. The
'National Comorbidity Survey
Replication' (NCS-R) was a study done
with 9,282 new participants. And the
'National Comorbidity Survey:
Adolescent Supplement' (NCS-A) was a
study done between 2000 and 2004
with 10,000 adolescents.
1
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National Comorbidity Survey - Most notable findings
-Comorbidity: Of the people who
experience mental illness in their lifetime
(48% of pop), 27% will experience more
than one. The resulting average is 2.1
mental disorders per (disordered) person.
1
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Ureterostomy - Morbidity and mortality rates
The outcome and prognosis for
ureterostomy patients depends on a
number of factors. The highest rates of
complications exist for those who have
pelvic cancer or a history of radiation
therapy.
1
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Ureterostomy - Morbidity and mortality rates
In one study, a French medical team
followed 69 patients for a minimum of one
year (an average of six years) after TUU
was performed
1
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Binge eating disorder - Comorbidities
1
Individuals who have binge eating disorder
commonly have other psychiatric
comorbidities such as major depressive
disorder, personality disorder, bipolar
disorder, substance abuse, body
dysmorphic disorder, kleptomania, irritable
bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, or anxiety
disorder
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Binge eating disorder - Comorbidities
1
Binge eating disorder is similar to, but distinct from,
compulsive overeater|compulsive overeating
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List of languages by writing system - Nsibidi
1
*Ekoid languages|Ekoi
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List of languages by writing system - Nsibidi
1
*Igbo language|Igbo
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List of languages by writing system - Nsibidi
1
*Ibibio language|Ibibio
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Incidence matrix - Signed and bidirected graphs
1
It is the incidence matrix of any bidirected graph
that orients the given signed graph
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Sensory processing disorder - Other comorbidities
1
Various conditions can involve SPD, such
as schizophrenia, succinic semialdehyde
dehydrogenase deficiency, primary
nocturnal enuresis, prenatal alcohol
exposure, learning disability|learning
difficulties and autism, as well as people
with traumatic brain injury or who have
had cochlear implants placed
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Morbid obesity - Morbidity
Obesity increases the risk of many
physical and mental conditions. These
comorbidities are most commonly shown
in metabolic syndrome, a combination of
medical disorders which includes: diabetes
mellitus type 2, hypertension|high blood
pressure, hypercholesterolemia|high blood
cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia|high
triglyceride levels.
1
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Morbid obesity - Morbidity
Complications are either directly
caused by obesity or indirectly related
through mechanisms sharing a
common cause such as a poor diet or a
sedentary lifestyle. The strength of the
link between obesity and specific
conditions varies. One of the strongest
is the link with type 2 diabetes. Excess
body fat underlies 64% of cases of
diabetes in men and 77% of cases in
1
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Morbid obesity - Morbidity
1
Health consequences fall into two broad
categories: those attributable to the effects
of increased fat mass (such as
osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea,
social stigmatization) and those due to the
increased number of fat cells (diabetes
mellitus|diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular
disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)
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Gene promoter - Bidirectional promoters (mammalian)
1
Transcription factor binding and modified
histones in human bidirectional promoters
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Supercentenarian - Morbidity
Research on the morbidity of
supercentenarians has found that they
remain free of major age-related diseases
(e.g., stroke, cardiovascular disease,
dementia, cancer, Parkinson’s disease
and diabetes) until the very end of life
when they die of exhaustion of organ
reserve, which is the ability to return organ
function to
Human_homeostasis|homeostasis
1
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List of Dragon Ball characters - Bobbidi
Bobbidi is voiced by Jōji Yanami in the
original series and by Bin Shimada in Kai,
Terry Klassen in the Ocean dub, and
Duncan Brannan in the Funimation dub.
1
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Hantaan River virus - Morbidity and mortality
1
In hantavirus induced hemorrhagic
fever, incubation time is between two
to four weeks in humans before
symptoms of infection present
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom
'Bidi bidi bom bom' is a song by
American Tejano music|Tejano pop
singer Selena from her album Amor
Prohibido|Amor prohibido (1994). The
album's second single, Bidi bidi bom
bom was written by Selena and Pete
Astudillo. It was produced by A.B.
Quintanilla|A.B. Quintanilla III– Selena's
brother– and Bebu Silvetti. It was
released on 13 August 1994 in the
1
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom
1
Bidi bidi bom bom received mixed to positive review
from contemporary music critics.
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom
1
Bidi bidi bom bom has
been covered by many
artists since its release.
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Background and production
1
Bidi bidi bom bom, one of the first
songs composed for Selena's fifth
studio album Amor Prohibido|Amor
prohibido (1994), is regarded as
Selena's signature song
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Background and production
1
with writing the song, while Selena's
widower Chris Perez helped gather
Rock fusion and guitar solos into Bidi
bidi bom bom
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Background and production
1
Selena had done takes
for Bidi bidi bom bom
at Q-Productions
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Composition and lyric content
1
Her heart would palpitate (Bidi bidi
bom bom) every time he walks near
her
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Critical reception
1
Ilan Stavans and Harold Augenbraum
reviewed Amor prohibido and stated
that Bidi bidi bom bom, No me queda
más, and Techno Cumbia are the key
hits of the album
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Critical reception
Diosdada Sagarra Díaz of Adelante
(newspaper)|Adelante highly praised Bidi
bidi bom bom's mixing styles and the
addicting rhythms of the song
1
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Critical reception
Bidi bidi bom bom was highly liked by
children and was covered in various
children compilation albums after Selena's
death.
1
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Background and development
1
The music video for Bidi bidi bom bom
was filmed from 28–30 April 1994 and
was directed by Cecilia Miniucchi.
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Background and development
1
The video was shot
in Santa Monica,
California at the
Santa Monica Pier
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Background and development
1
Meanwhile, she begins to
sing the song Bidi Bidi
Bom Bom
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Reception
1
Fuegues editor, François Petit, said, The
music video for 'Bidi Bidi Bom Bom' was
astonishing and greatly appreciated
among French gays for its grooves and
addicting lyrics, in nightclubs across
Canada
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Credits and personnel
1
All credits were taken
from the albums liner
notes.
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Credits and personnel
1
*Pete Astudillo – writer
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Credits and personnel
1
*List of music arrangers|Roger
Emerson – music arranger
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Credits and personnel
1
*Brian Red Moore – audio
mixing (recorded
music)|audio mixer
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Covers
1
Bidi Bidi Bom Bom was also included in a
lesbian pride event in Long Beach,
California|Long Beach, California.
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Bidi Bidi Bom Bom - Covers
Puerto Rican boy band, Tick Tock
(band)|Tick Tock, covered the song, as
well as creating a music video to
promote the song in 2004
1
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Australian Shepherd - Morbidity
Based on a sample of 48 still-living
dogs, the most common health issues
noted by owners were eye problems
(red eye, epiphora, conjunctivitis, and
cataracts). Dermatological and
respiratory problems also ranked high.
1
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Australian Shepherd - Morbidity
1
Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is rare in the breed, but it
and cataracts are a concern in Aussies
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Australian Shepherd - Morbidity
Some Australian shepherds (as well as
collies, German Shepherd|German
shepherds and many other herding dogs)
are susceptible to a genetic mutation of
the MDR1 gene. Dogs with the mutation
can suffer toxicity from anti-parasitics such
as Ivermectin in high doses, and other
drugs. A test is available to determine if a
particular dog carries the mutated gene.
1
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Dobrava-Belgrade virus - Morbidity and Mortality
1
The fatality rate is 12%, making Dobrava
virus the most life-threatening hantavirus
disease in Europe. Variant DOBV
genotypes have different degrees of
pathogenicity.Papa A.Dobrava-Belgrade
virus: phylogeny, epidemiology,
disease.Antiviral Res. 2012
Aug;95(2):104-17. doi:
10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.05.011. Epub
2012 May 30.
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Dragon Ball Z Collectible Card Game - Babidi saga
Another Booster only set, Babidi Saga
expanded upon the Majin (Dragon Ball)|Majin
mechanic
1
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Dragon Ball Z Collectible Card Game - Babidi saga
The Personality cards in this set
included Son Goku (Dragon
Ball)|Goku, Son Gohan|Gohan,
Android 18, Mr. Satan|Hercule, Videl,
List of Dragon Ball
characters#Kaioshin, East|Supreme
Kai, Babidi|Majin Babidi,
Dabura|Majin Dabura, List of Dragon
Ball characters#Pui-Pui|Majin PuiPui, List of Dragon Ball
1
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Dragon Ball Z Collectible Card Game - Babidi saga
1
The 6-star Ultra Rare cards printed in this
set were Majin Vegeta, Level 1 and Majin
Vegeta, the Malevolent, Level 5.
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Law Abiding Citizen
1
'Law Abiding Citizen' is a 2009 American
Thriller (genre)|thriller film directed by F.
Gary Gray from a screenplay written by
Kurt Wimmer and stars Jamie Foxx and
Gerard Butler. The film takes place in
Philadelphia and tells the story of a man
driven to commit multiple murders while
targeting not only his family's killer but also
a corrupt criminal justice system. Law
Abiding Citizen was released theatrically in
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Law Abiding Citizen
The film was nominated for a Saturn
Award as the Best
Action/Adventure/Thriller Film of the year,
but lost to Inglourious Basterds, and the
film also garnered NAACP Image Awards
nominations for both Jamie Foxx
(Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture)
and F. Gary Gray (Outstanding Directing in
a Motion Picture).
1
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
1
In a 1999 Philadelphia violent home
invasion, Clyde Shelton (Gerard
Butler) is forced to witness the rape
and murder of his wife and young
daughter, by Clarence James Darby
(Christian Stolte) and his accomplice
Rupert Ames (Josh Stewart)
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
1
Ten years later, Ames's
time on death row is up
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
1
As he leaves the interrogation room, Rice
receives a phone call from his wife, and
learns that Shelton had sent a copy of the
snuff film of Darby's demise to his house,
traumatizing his young daughter
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
Once in jail, Shelton demands a
porterhouse steak lunch be delivered to
his cell by a specific time, in return for
disclosing where to find Darby's lawyer,
who they then discover was reported
missing three days earlier
1
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
Cantrell arranges a
meeting with a CIA
contact and takes Rice
along
1
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
Rice discovers that
Shelton owns an auto
garage right next to the
prison
1
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Law Abiding Citizen - Plot
1
Shelton returns to his garage after planting the city
hall bomb, then returns to his cell
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Law Abiding Citizen - Cast
1
* Colm Meaney as
Detective Dunnigan
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Law Abiding Citizen - Cast
1
* Bruce McGill as
Jonas Cantrell
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Law Abiding Citizen - Cast
1
* Emerald-Angel Young as
Denise Rice
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Law Abiding Citizen - Cast
* Annie Corley as
Judge Laura Burch
1
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Law Abiding Citizen - Production
1
Filming began in August 2008 and took
place in and around Philadelphia. Filming
locations included Philadelphia's City Hall
and the old Eastern State Penitentiary.
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Law Abiding Citizen - Production
1
The film was edited after being threatened
with an Motion Picture Association of
America film rating system|NC-17 rating
for violence, with the full version released
unrated on Blu-ray.
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Law Abiding Citizen - Soundtrack
The Law Abiding Citizen
(soundtrack)|score to Law Abiding Citizen
was composed by Brian Tyler
(composer)|Brian Tyler, who recorded his
score with a 52-piece ensemble of the
Hollywood Studio Symphony at the Sony
Scoring Stage with help from Kieron
Charlesworth
1
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Law Abiding Citizen - Soundtrack
1
The tune at the end for closing credits is Sin's A
Good Man's Brother by Grand Funk Railroad.
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Law Abiding Citizen - Release
1
The film was released theatrically on
October 16, 2009. The first theatrical
trailer was released on August 14,
2009 and was attached to District 9.
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Law Abiding Citizen - Release
1
The premiere was held on November 15,
2009 at the Cineworld complex in Glasgow
- hometown of Gerard Butler. Many British
tabloids have labeled this event as the
Homecoming Premiere, in reference to the
Homecoming Scotland celebrations.
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Law Abiding Citizen - Reception
Law Abiding Citizen received negative
reviews from critics. Review aggregation
website Rotten Tomatoes gives it a 25%
score, with an average rating of 4.3/10
based on 155 reviews. The site's critical
consensus states that Unnecessarily
violent and unflinchingly absurd, Law
Abiding Citizen is plagued by subpar
acting and a story that defies reason.
http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/law_abi
ding_citizen/
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Law Abiding Citizen - Reception
In his review for the Chicago Sun
Times, Roger Ebert said, Law Abiding
Citizen is the kind of movie you will
like more at the time than in
retrospect. He then went on to say,
Still, there's something to be said for a
movie you like well enough at the
time. Ebert rated the film 3 out of 4
stars.http://www.rogerebert.com/revi
ews/law-abiding-citizen-2009 Roger
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Alaskan Malamute - Morbidity
The most commonly reported health
problems of Alaskan Malamutes, in the 2004
UK Kennel Club survey (based on a sample
size of 64 dogs) were musculoskeletal (Hip
dysplasia (canine)|hip dysplasia), and
hereditary cataracts. There are additional
health issues in the breed whose origins are
unknown at this time including varied seizure
disorders found in young puppies as well as
adults, Epilepsy, congenital heart problems,
kidney problems and skin disorders.
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Alaskan Malamute - Morbidity
1
Other health issues in Malamutes include Elbow
dysplasia, Polyneuropathy in dogs and
cats|inherited polyneuropathy, chondrodysplasia,
heart defects, and eye problems (particularly
cataract and progressive retinal
atrophy).http://www.alaskanmalamute.org/Health/h
ealth.asp Alaskan Malamute Club of America
Health Committee Retrieved July 10, 2007 A
growing problem among arctic dog breeds,
including the Alaskan Malamute, but especially
their cousin, the Samoyed, is canine diabetes with
onset occurring typically in middle age (5 to 7
years)[http://www.adrtc.org/canine-diabetes/ Arctic
Dog Rescue and Training Center » Canine
Diabetes]
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Ernest Shackleton - Biding time
1
In the period immediately after his
return, Shackleton engaged in a
strenuous schedule of public
appearances, lectures and social
engagements
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Ernest Shackleton - Biding time
1
Any future resumption by Shackleton of
the quest for the South Pole depended on
the results of Scott's Terra Nova
Expedition, which left from Cardiff in July
1910
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