* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE He was one of the greatest dramatists the world has ever seen. He is famous worldwide, not only in his native England. He was born in April 1564 at Stratford-upon-Avon as the third child of Mary and John Shakespeare. His father worked as a glove-maker. The whole family lived quite happily in a house on Henley Street. He attended the local grammar school, where he learnt Latin and Greek. When William was 18 years old, he married Ann Hathaway, who came from the nearby village of Shottery. She was 8 years older than William. They had two daughters (Susan and Judith) and a son, Judith’s twin brother Hamnet, who died when he was 11 years old. Four years after marrying Ann, William left his wife and children and moved to the London. In London he became an actor and co-owner of a theatrical company. Soon thereafter his talent was recognised. At first he rewrote and edited older plays. Later he started to write his own plays. He was very successful. After his arrival in London he joined the King’s Men troup of actors. In 1599 he bought the Globe Theatre. During the 20 years that he lived in London, he wrote many tragedies, comedies, tragicomedies and historical plays. Somewhat less well known are his sonnets. After acting in the theatre and writing plays he returned to his family in Stratford. Since he had earned a lot of money, he could afford to buy a new house in his native city. There he lived with his family in peace and contentment. He died on the same date he was born – on April 23rd. The Cause of his death was excessive celebration of his birthday. Altogether William wrote 37 theatre plays and one hundred and 54 sonnets. He was also a poet. As distinct from ancient tragedies there is no trace of any subordination to fate in his tragedies. The plays have renaissance features, meaning that the theme is a secular one, the heroes are masters of their fate, they assert their own will and their actions are the consequence of their character. His plays reflect the problems of his time. Shakespeare didn’t adhere to unity of place, time and action. He used blank verse. 1st period (1591- 1600) Up to 1600 he wrote primarily comedies. Fairness and love triumphs. Females roles are very important: The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, The Merry Wives of Windsor, As You Like It, Twelfth Night. He also wrote historical plays, on the basis of chronicles and the reigns of kings: Richard II., Richard III., Henry IV., Henry V. and Henry VI.. The best-known tragedy from early period is Romeo and Juliet. At that time he also wrote the play Julius Caesar and the comedy The Merchant of Venice. 2nd period (1601- 1608) A certain pessimism and the conviction that it is not possible to realise Renaissance ideals made their appearance. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark – the ambivalence of Hamlet, as to whether or not he should reveal his father’s murder. He wants to force the murderer to confess. To punish evil or to fulfil ideals? Othello, Macbeth… 3rd period The plays and opinions of William inspired many artists of later times- for example Verdi, Beethoven and Tchaikovsky. The Tempest, A Winter’s Tale and Henry VIII. Romeo and Juliet Romeo fell in love with Juliet. They married in secrecy because their families hated each other. Romeo was descended from the Capulet clan and Juliet from the Montague clan. These were the two most powerful families in Verona. Romeo murdered Tybalt, who was Juliet’s cousin, and was banished from Verona. Juliet’s parents wanted Juliet to marry a wealthy Parisian. Therefore Juliet drank a potion which made her look as if she were dead. Unfortunately, Romeo came to Juliet before she awoke. Thinking that she was dead, he poisoned himself. When Juliet found her lover dead beside her, she stabbed herself to death. The death of Romeo and Juliet brought about a reconciliation between the two clans.