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THE HUMAN BODY
The Human Body
Nutrition and Digestion
Nutrition and Digestion
• Vitamins and minerals pass directly into
body through intestine
• Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats must
be broken into smaller, usable forms
(digestion)
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Carbohydrates
• Broken down into simple sugars
(monosaccharides)
• starches, potatoes, pasta, bread, grains
• candy
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Proteins
• Broken down into amino acids and
peptides
• Meat, eggs
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Fats
• Broken down into fatty acids; glycerol
• oils, nuts
• Fats contain the most food energy
(Calories)
• Energy is not as
easy to use as
carbohydrates
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Includes butter, oils, salad
dressings, and soft drinks
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Mechanical digestion
• Chewing and grinding
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Chemical digestion
• Enzymes (proteins) speed up chemical
digestion
• Enzymes are food specific
Salivary
gland
Salivary
ducts
Tongue
Salivary glands
Digestive Enzymes
Organ
Enzyme
Molecules Digested
Product
Salivary glands
Salivary amylase
Starch
Disaccharide
Stomach
Pepsin
Proteins
Peptides
Pancreas
Pancreatic amylase Starch
Trypsin
Proteins
Small intestine
Pancreatic lipase
Fats
Nucleases
Nucleic acids
Maltase
Sucrase
Lactase
Peptidase
Nuclease
Disaccharide
Disaccharide
Disaccharide
Peptides
Nucleotides
Disaccharide
Peptides
Fatty acids and
glycerol
Nucleotides
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Amino acids
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Digestive system
• Mouth  Pharynx  Esophagus 
Stomach  Small intestine  Large
intestine  Rectum
• Alimentary canal
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Incisors
Gums
Hard palate
Tonsils
Molars
Bicuspids or
premolars
Tongue
Opening of salivary
gland duct
Cuspids or
canines
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Stomach
• Mechanical and chemical digestion
• Contains hydrochloric acid with low pH
(pH around 2) and pepsin
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Small Intestine
• Absorption of
nutrients
• Nutrients diffuse
through small
intestine into blood
• Villi increase
surface area and
efficiency
Small intestine
Villi
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Villi
Blood vessel
network inside villi
Fatty acids (glycerol)
Amino acids
Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
The villi are the link between the digestive
system and the circulatory system.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Large Intestine
• Absorption of water and minerals
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Other digestive organs
Not part of alimentary canal
• Food doesn’t pass through them
Diaphragm
Esophagus
Liver
Gallbladder
Stomach
Pancreatic
duct
Bile duct
Small
intestine
Duodenum
Pancreas
Pancreas
• Produces insulin – maintains blood sugar
• Diabetics regulate their own insulin with
diet or injections of insulin
• Releases digestive juices into small
intestine
• Neutralize acidity of food leaving
stomach
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Liver
• Produces bile to break down fats
• Gallbladder stores bile, releases into
small intestine
• If gall bladder is removed, need low fat
diet – bile secreted into intestine and not
stored
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Life Processes Require Energy
Made During Cellular Respiration
The Human Body
The Excretory System
Excretion
• Removal of waste products
• Lungs, kidneys, skin
Kidneys filter blood (remove urea and
nitrogen compounds, excess salts and water)
Blood cells,
water, salts,
nutrients, urea
Nutrients
Bowman’s
capsule
Capillaries
Vein
Water
Salts
Nutrients
Blood cells, water, salts,
nutrients sent back to body
Urine: Urea,
excess water,
salts stored
in bladder
Nephron of Kidney
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Lungs remove carbon dioxide and water
Alveoli
O2 – rich blood
Capillary network
Alveolus
CO2 –
rich blood
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 970- 995).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Skin removes urea with sweat
The Human Body
The Nervous System
The Nervous System
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Neurons
• Nerve cells, carry messages
• Basic unit of nervous system
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Nerve Cell Parts
•
•
•
•
Cell body - Nucleus, cytoplasm
Dendrites – Receives messages
Axon – Sends messages
Nerves – bundles of neurons
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Dendrite
Axon endings
Cell body
Nucleus
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Sensory neurons
• sense organs  spinal cord  brain
Associative neurons
• Connect sensory neurons to motor neurons
Motor neurons
• Brain  spinal cord  muscles or glands
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Sensory Neurons
Brain
Motor neurons
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Impulses
• Messages sent from one neuron to
another
• Neurons pass chemical messages to
other neurons
• Axon releases chemicals into gap
between axon and dendrite.
• Chemicals travel across gap to dendrite
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Reflexes
• Automatic, quick response
• Controlled by spinal cord, not brain
• Examples: choking and response to pain
Sensory
neuron
Motor neuron
Interneuron
Spinal cord
Receptor in skin
Direction
of
impulse
Muscle
contracts
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 35: Nervous System. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 890- 919). Upper Saddle River,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
The Human Body
Reproduction
Reproduction
• Sexually
• Internal fertilization
• Egg and sperm unite (fertilization) 
zygote  embryo  fetus  baby
• Sperm made in testes
• Eggs made in ovaries
• Eggs and sperm are called gametes, sex
cells, haploid or n cells.
• Eggs and sperm are made by meiosis.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
The Human Body
Endocrine and Muscular System
Endocrine System
• Hormones regulate growth and
development (example: puberty)
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 39: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 996- 1029).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Support
• Muscles and bones
• Muscular system
• Three types of
muscle
http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/images/100085.jpg
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 36: Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp.
920- 941). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Skeletal muscle
•
•
•
•
•
Allow movement
Voluntary muscle
You can control them
Can only pull bones, not push
Work in pairs – flexor(bends),
extensor(straightens)
• Actin and myosin cause muscles to work
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 36: Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp.
920- 941). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Muscles work in pairs.
Muscles only PULL bones.
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 36: Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp.
920- 941). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Smooth muscle
•
•
•
•
•
•
Involuntary
You cannot control them
blood vessels, stomach, other organs
Diaphragm
lowers to increase size of chest cavity
Air moves in due to low pressure
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 36: Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp.
920- 941). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Cardiac muscle
• Involuntary
• Transmits electrical impulses
• Pump blood through heart and rest of
body
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 36: Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp.
920- 941). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
The Human Body
Circulatory System
Circulatory system
•
•
•
•
4-chambered heart
Arteries carry blood away from heart.
Veins carry blood to heart.
Capillaries allow gas exchange by
diffusion
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 37: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 942- 969).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
• Red blood cells
• Hemoglobin (iron-rich molecule) carries
oxygen
• White blood cells
• Defend against disease or infection
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 37: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 942- 969).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
The Human Body
Respiratory System
Respiration
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 37: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 942- 969).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Respiratory System
• Gas exchange by diffusion in lungs
• Oxygen diffuses into blood (out of lungs)
• Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood (into
lungs)
• Oxygen used in cellular respiration.
• Carbon dioxide produced from cellular
respiration
• O2 + C6H12O6 + H2O → ATP + CO2 + H2O
Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. S. (2005). Chapter 37: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Prentice Hall biology (North Carolina ed., pp. 942- 969).
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Extra Studying
These are the chapters that were covered
briefly in this PowerPoint. It may be in
your favor to go and either read or reread the following chapters in your text
book.
– CHAPTER 35: NERVOUS SYSTEM
– CHAPTER 36: SKELETAL, MUSCULAR, AND INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEMS.
– CHAPTER 37: CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS
– CHAPTER 38: DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS
– CHAPTER 39: ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
Bibliography
•
MILLER, K. R., & LEVINE, J. S. (2005). CHAPTER 35: NERVOUS SYSTEM. PRENTICE HALL
BIOLOGY (NORTH CAROLINA ED., PP. 890- 919). UPPER SADDLE RIVER, N.J.: PRENTICE HALL.
•
MILLER, K. R., & LEVINE, J. S. (2005). CHAPTER 36: SKELETAL, MUSCULAR, AND
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS. PRENTICE HALL BIOLOGY (NORTH CAROLINA ED., PP. 920- 941).
UPPER SADDLE RIVER, N.J.: PRENTICE HALL.
•
MILLER, K. R., & LEVINE, J. S. (2005). CHAPTER 37: CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY
SYSTEMS. PRENTICE HALL BIOLOGY (NORTH CAROLINA ED., PP. 942- 969). UPPER SADDLE
RIVER, N.J.: PRENTICE HALL.
•
MILLER, K. R., & LEVINE, J. S. (2005). CHAPTER 38: DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY
SYSTEMS. PRENTICE HALL BIOLOGY (NORTH CAROLINA ED., PP. 970- 995). UPPER SADDLE
RIVER, N.J.: PRENTICE HALL.
•
MILLER, K. R., & LEVINE, J. S. (2005). CHAPTER 39: ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEMS. PRENTICE HALL BIOLOGY (NORTH CAROLINA ED., PP. 996- 1029). UPPER SADDLE
RIVER, N.J.: PRENTICE HALL.
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