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Android Application Architecture
Framework
As smart phones and tablets become more popular, the operating systems for those
devices become more important. Android is such an operating system for low
powered devices, that run on battery and are full of hardware [17]like Global
Positioning System (GPS) receivers, cameras, light and orientation sensors, WiFi and
UMTS (3G telephony) connectivity and a touchscreen. Like all operating systems,
Android enables applications to make use of the hardware features through
abstraction and provide a defined environment for applications.
Structural overview
The Android software stack as shown in figure can be subdivided into five layers:
The kernel and low level tools, native libraries, the Android Runtime, the framework
layer and on top of all the applications.
• The kernel in use is a Linux 2.6 series kernel, modified for special needs in
power management,
• memory management and the runtime environment.
• Libraries like the libc or libm were developed especially for low memory
consumption, as
• Android is supposed to run on devices with little main memory and low
powered CPUs.
• Android Runtime consists of the Dalvik virtual machine and the Java core
libraries. The
• Dalvik virtual machine is an interpreter for byte code that has been transformed
from Java
• byte code to Dalvik byte code.
• Android Application Framework are written in Java and provide abstractions of
the
• underlying native libraries and Dalvik capabilities to applications.
• Android applications run in their own sandboxes Dalvik VM and can consist of
multiple
• components: Activities, services, broadcast receivers and content providers.
Structural overview
The Android software stack as shown in figure can be subdivided into five layers:
The kernel and low level tools, native libraries, the Android Runtime, the framework
layer and on top of all the applications.
• The kernel in use is a Linux 2.6 series kernel, modified for special needs in
power management, memory management and the runtime environment.
• Libraries like the libc or libm were developed especially for low memory
consumption, as Android is supposed to run on devices with little main
memory and low powered CPUs.
• Android Runtime consists of the Dalvik virtual machine and the Java core
libraries. The
• Dalvik virtual machine is an interpreter for byte code that has been transformed
from Java byte code to Dalvik byte code.
• Android Application Framework are written in Java and provide abstractions of
the
• underlying native libraries and Dalvik capabilities to applications.
• Android applications run in their own sandboxes Dalvik VM and can consist of
multiple components: Activities, services, broadcast receivers and content
providers.