Download Chapter 9 The Islamic World and Africa

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Islamic democracy wikipedia, lookup

Islamic Golden Age wikipedia, lookup

Muslim world wikipedia, lookup

International reactions to Fitna wikipedia, lookup

Islamofascism wikipedia, lookup

History of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and secularism wikipedia, lookup

Islam and war wikipedia, lookup

Criticism of Islamism wikipedia, lookup

Islam and Mormonism wikipedia, lookup

Reception of Islam in Early Modern Europe wikipedia, lookup

Morality in Islam wikipedia, lookup

Political aspects of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and violence wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Afghanistan wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Somalia wikipedia, lookup

Schools of Islamic theology wikipedia, lookup

Islam and modernity wikipedia, lookup

Spread of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Soviet Orientalist studies in Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and Sikhism wikipedia, lookup

Islam in South Africa wikipedia, lookup

War against Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islamic schools and branches wikipedia, lookup

Islamic culture wikipedia, lookup

Islam and other religions wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
The Islamic World and Africa
Chapter 9
Page 1: Essential Questions
1) What are the major beliefs of Islam? (pages 4 & 6)
2) What were the political, economic, and social effects of the
spread of Islamic culture? (page 8)
3) How did the Gold-Salt Trade encourage the growth of a
series of prosperous kingdoms in West Africa: Ghana, Mali,
and Songhai? (page 10)
Page 2: Introduction
• In this chapter, you will learn about developments in the Middle
East and Africa during the post-classical era.
• Mohammad founded Islam on the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th
century.
• The Quran/Koran is the sacred book of Islam. It records the
teachings of Mohammad.
• Muslims follow the 5 Pillars of Islam: faith in 1 God, prayer,
charity, fasting, and making pilgrimage to Mecca.
• Islam rapidly spread through Middle East, North Africa, and Spain.
Islamic culture flourished under the caliphates. Islamic scholars
made important contributions in mathematics, science, and
architecture.
Page 2: Introduction (cont.)
• The Gold-Salt trade exchanged salt from the Sahara Desert
with gold found in West Africa.
• The gold-salt trade encouraged growth of series of
prosperous kingdoms in W. Africa: Ghana, Mali, and
Songhai.
• Other civilizations also flourished in Africa, including Ife,
Benin, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, and cities of East Africa.
• Use of captives as slaves, a practice common in the ancient
world, encouraged later development of the slave trade.
Page 3: Key Terminology
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Arabian Peninsula
Sunni Muslims
Shiite Muslims
Mohammad
Mansa Musa
9) Savanna
10) Timbuktu
11) Quran (Koran)
12) Gold-Salt Trade
13) Ibn Battuta
Page 5: The Five Pillars of Islam
• Create an illustration featuring The Five Pillars of Islam
• Be sure to draw, label, and colorfully illustrate your design
• You must show all 5 Pillars
Page 4: The Rise of Islam
• Due to warfare between Byzantine and Persian empires
trade land routes were changed
• Sea routes now used, connecting India with Arabian
Peninsula & Red Sea
• Land camel caravans traveled along these trade routes
• Mecca- holiest Muslim city
• Islam was created in 600 A.D.
• Islam- Arabic for the word “submission”
• Within 100 yrs. Islam controlled large area of Roman
Empire
Mohammed: Prophet of Islam
• Islam founded by Mohammed
• Born in 570, was a merchant and a shepherd
• While meditating in the hills, the Angel Gabriel visited him
and revealed to him that he was the next and final prophet
• Allah- is the proper name for Islam’s God
• He began to preach but attracted few followers; many
enemies feared he would upset the political and social
order
• In 622, Mohammed and his followers fled to Medina
(trip is called the Hegira), it is also the start of the
Muslim calendar
• In 630, he gathered an army to retake Mecca in a
Jihad “holy war”
• 632 Mohammed died and is buried in Medina
• At time of death most Arabian tribes were Muslims
The Quran (Koran)
• Quran- is sacred text of Islam
• Allah spoke to Mohammad the records
• Mohammed memorized them
• Scribes wrote them in the Quran
• Discusses: forms of worship, proper conduct, treatment of
women
• The fundamental doctrine is “there is no God but Allah;
Mohammed is his prophet/messenger
Page 6: The Five Pillars of Islam
• As part of Islam all true Muslims must perform 5 duties,
called the 5 Pillars of Faith
• Shahada (affirmation or belief)- “There is only 1 God/Allah
and Mohammed is the Messenger of God”
• Salat (prayer)- duty to worship Allah in prayer 5 times daily
• Zakat (almsgiving/charity)- duty to give charity to help the
poor/needy
• Siyam (fasting)- duty to keep the Fast of Ramadan
• Hajj (pilgrimage)- duty to make pilgrimage to Mecca at
least once in a lifetime
Islam Spreads
• Islam united various Arab tribes with same language
• Strengthened their newfound unity
• Set out for a “holy war” against non-believers/infidels
• Fought to gain entry to heaven
• Byzantine and Persian Empires were weak because of
centuries of fighting each other
• Allowed Islam to spread into Indus valley and to Spain, was
stopped at Battle of Tours
The Caliphates
• When Mohammed died, Muslim leaders chose a new
leader- “Caliph” “Successor to Mohammed”
• 2 early caliphs were murdered
• A new caliph founded the Umayyad Caliphate/family
• Created a division in the Muslim religion
• Sunnis- most Muslims followed the new caliph
• Shiites- only Mohammed’s descendants could be caliphs
• Umayyad caliphs moved capital to Damascus (Syria)
• After 750, a new family, Abbasids took over the caliphate
• Focused on trade not war
• Built new capital at Baghdad (Iraq)
• Absolute rulers
• Surrounded himself with riches
• Caliphs converted or enslaved other peoples they found
worshipping other gods
• Non-Arab converts had less rights
Page 7: Golden Age of Muslim Culture Bubble
Maps
1)
2)
3)
4)
Create four separate bubble maps featuring:
Mathematics
Medicine
Arts and Crafts
Architecture
Page 8: Muslim Rulers Treated Christians and Jews with
Respect because:
• they worshiped one god
• allowed self-governing communities
• had to pay a special tax since they were not Muslims
• could not hold some public offices
Golden Age of Muslim Culture
• Period of great advances in culture and technology
• Absorbed achievements of Greeks, Romans, Jews,
Byzantines, and Persians
• Arabic became language of Quran and empire
• 12th century, Muslims vs. Christians 4 control of Holy Lands
(cultural diffusion)
• 1099 Jerusalem re-taken by Saladin (Muslim leader, warrior,
hero)
Math
• Borrowed zero from India
• Developed Arabic numerals
• Great advances in Geometry and Algebra
Medicine
• Discovered blood moved to and from heart
• Diagnosed many diseases (measles and smallpox)
Arts and Crafts
• Forbids images of God
• Islamic art mostly geometric designs, flowers, stars
• Textiles, leather works, rugs are highly prized
Architecture
• Muslim rulers built beautiful palaces and mosques, richly
decorated with mosaics, calligraphy, geometrical designs
Page 10: Kingdoms of Africa
• Anthropologists believe humanity 1st arose in E. Africa
• Kush civilization early iron-producing center became rich
selling iron, ivory, ebony, wood, and slaves
• Kingdom of Ethiopia developed own form of Christianity
Page 9: The Gold-Salt Trade
• Create a map featuring Africa’s Gold-Salt Trade
• Please refer to page 128 in textbook
• Include: drawing, labeling, and color to your illustration
Page 10: Kingdoms of Africa and The Gold-Salt
Trade
• The Sahara Desert was a barrier 4 trade between
Mediterranean world and S. Africa
• Travelers found oasis and developed paths to cross the
Sahara
• Merchants motivated 2 cross Sahara because of gold &
other riches in W. Africa
• W. Africa lacked salt, salt is needed 4 human survival
• Merchants traveled on camel caravans across Sahara with
blocks of salt 2 trade 4 gold
• Thriving trade based on salt-gold
• Ideas exchanged such as Islamic beliefs
Kingdom of Ghana (750-1200)
• Developed in region between Senegal and Niger Rivers
• Made: iron swords, spears, lances to take control of trade
routes
• Kings of Ghana taxed the routes used 4 gold-salt trade
• With this $ they created army with large cavalry
• Built capital city and governed a large area with officials
and nobles
• Kings appointed nobles
• Nobles had to make sure their land paid taxes
• 1076 Muslims from N. Africa invaded Ghana
• Ghana never fully recovered
• Ghana became several smaller states
Kingdom of Mali (1240-1400 )
• 1240 people of Mali conquered old capital of Ghana and
created a new empire
• Kings took control of salt and gold mines
• Mail’s rulers converted to Islam
• Most of people did not and stayed with their own
traditional beliefs
• Mansa Musa- Mali’s most famous ruler, expanded kingdom
• Brought Muslim scholars and architects back to Mali
• Ordered palace and mosque built in Timbuktu
• Important center for several universities
• Because of the importance of the Koran, many people
learned how to read and write
• Ibn Battuta, an Arab traveler, did extensive traveling in
Africa
• Because of Ibn scholars know much about the life in Africa
and the Middle East
• Rulers after Mansa Mus were not as good, kingdom
collapsed in the 1400’s
Kingdom of Songhai (1464-1600)
• In 1464, Sultan Sunni Ali, ruler of the Songhai people,
captured Timbuktu
• The Kingdom of Songhai became the largest of W. Africa’s
Kingdoms
• Grew rich from trade across the Sahara
• Expanded trade to Europe and Asia
• Created elaborate system of taxation and communication
• The Kingdom of Songhai only lasted 130 years
• Morocco invaded W. Africa for its riches
• Was able to defeat Songhai because they used gunpowder
and the Kingdom used spears and arrows
• Morocco was unable to govern from long distance
• Kingdom split up into independent areas
• Was the last great W. African kingdom
Other African States
Ife and Benin
• famous for their copper and bronze statues
• 16th century, became involved in the slave trade
• traded captured people for guns and iron goods with
Europeans
Zimbabwe
• One of the best trading kingdoms
• Large gold deposits
• Traded gold, copper and ivory
Coastal Cities of East Africa
• Merchants from Arabia and India would buy gold from
these cities
Family Roles in Africa
• Many African societies, boys and girls would be separated
at puberty and have special ceremonies
• Marriages arranged by families
• Groom paid a dowry
• Under Islam, women could only do household chores