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The Islamic World and Africa
Chapter 9
Page 1: Essential Questions
1) What are the major beliefs of Islam? (pages 4 & 6)
2) What were the political, economic, and social effects of the
spread of Islamic culture? (page 8)
3) How did the Gold-Salt Trade encourage the growth of a
series of prosperous kingdoms in West Africa: Ghana, Mali,
and Songhai? (page 10)
Page 2: Introduction
• In this chapter, you will learn about developments in the Middle
East and Africa during the post-classical era.
• Mohammad founded Islam on the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th
• The Quran/Koran is the sacred book of Islam. It records the
teachings of Mohammad.
• Muslims follow the 5 Pillars of Islam: faith in 1 God, prayer,
charity, fasting, and making pilgrimage to Mecca.
• Islam rapidly spread through Middle East, North Africa, and Spain.
Islamic culture flourished under the caliphates. Islamic scholars
made important contributions in mathematics, science, and
Page 2: Introduction (cont.)
• The Gold-Salt trade exchanged salt from the Sahara Desert
with gold found in West Africa.
• The gold-salt trade encouraged growth of series of
prosperous kingdoms in W. Africa: Ghana, Mali, and
• Other civilizations also flourished in Africa, including Ife,
Benin, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, and cities of East Africa.
• Use of captives as slaves, a practice common in the ancient
world, encouraged later development of the slave trade.
Page 3: Key Terminology
Five Pillars of Islam
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Arabian Peninsula
Sunni Muslims
Shiite Muslims
Mansa Musa
9) Savanna
10) Timbuktu
11) Quran (Koran)
12) Gold-Salt Trade
13) Ibn Battuta
Page 5: The Five Pillars of Islam
• Create an illustration featuring The Five Pillars of Islam
• Be sure to draw, label, and colorfully illustrate your design
• You must show all 5 Pillars
Page 4: The Rise of Islam
• Due to warfare between Byzantine and Persian empires
trade land routes were changed
• Sea routes now used, connecting India with Arabian
Peninsula & Red Sea
• Land camel caravans traveled along these trade routes
• Mecca- holiest Muslim city
• Islam was created in 600 A.D.
• Islam- Arabic for the word “submission”
• Within 100 yrs. Islam controlled large area of Roman
Mohammed: Prophet of Islam
• Islam founded by Mohammed
• Born in 570, was a merchant and a shepherd
• While meditating in the hills, the Angel Gabriel visited him
and revealed to him that he was the next and final prophet
• Allah- is the proper name for Islam’s God
• He began to preach but attracted few followers; many
enemies feared he would upset the political and social
• In 622, Mohammed and his followers fled to Medina
(trip is called the Hegira), it is also the start of the
Muslim calendar
• In 630, he gathered an army to retake Mecca in a
Jihad “holy war”
• 632 Mohammed died and is buried in Medina
• At time of death most Arabian tribes were Muslims
The Quran (Koran)
• Quran- is sacred text of Islam
• Allah spoke to Mohammad the records
• Mohammed memorized them
• Scribes wrote them in the Quran
• Discusses: forms of worship, proper conduct, treatment of
• The fundamental doctrine is “there is no God but Allah;
Mohammed is his prophet/messenger
Page 6: The Five Pillars of Islam
• As part of Islam all true Muslims must perform 5 duties,
called the 5 Pillars of Faith
• Shahada (affirmation or belief)- “There is only 1 God/Allah
and Mohammed is the Messenger of God”
• Salat (prayer)- duty to worship Allah in prayer 5 times daily
• Zakat (almsgiving/charity)- duty to give charity to help the
• Siyam (fasting)- duty to keep the Fast of Ramadan
• Hajj (pilgrimage)- duty to make pilgrimage to Mecca at
least once in a lifetime
Islam Spreads
• Islam united various Arab tribes with same language
• Strengthened their newfound unity
• Set out for a “holy war” against non-believers/infidels
• Fought to gain entry to heaven
• Byzantine and Persian Empires were weak because of
centuries of fighting each other
• Allowed Islam to spread into Indus valley and to Spain, was
stopped at Battle of Tours
The Caliphates
• When Mohammed died, Muslim leaders chose a new
leader- “Caliph” “Successor to Mohammed”
• 2 early caliphs were murdered
• A new caliph founded the Umayyad Caliphate/family
• Created a division in the Muslim religion
• Sunnis- most Muslims followed the new caliph
• Shiites- only Mohammed’s descendants could be caliphs
• Umayyad caliphs moved capital to Damascus (Syria)
• After 750, a new family, Abbasids took over the caliphate
• Focused on trade not war
• Built new capital at Baghdad (Iraq)
• Absolute rulers
• Surrounded himself with riches
• Caliphs converted or enslaved other peoples they found
worshipping other gods
• Non-Arab converts had less rights
Page 7: Golden Age of Muslim Culture Bubble
Create four separate bubble maps featuring:
Arts and Crafts
Page 8: Muslim Rulers Treated Christians and Jews with
Respect because:
• they worshiped one god
• allowed self-governing communities
• had to pay a special tax since they were not Muslims
• could not hold some public offices
Golden Age of Muslim Culture
• Period of great advances in culture and technology
• Absorbed achievements of Greeks, Romans, Jews,
Byzantines, and Persians
• Arabic became language of Quran and empire
• 12th century, Muslims vs. Christians 4 control of Holy Lands
(cultural diffusion)
• 1099 Jerusalem re-taken by Saladin (Muslim leader, warrior,
• Borrowed zero from India
• Developed Arabic numerals
• Great advances in Geometry and Algebra
• Discovered blood moved to and from heart
• Diagnosed many diseases (measles and smallpox)
Arts and Crafts
• Forbids images of God
• Islamic art mostly geometric designs, flowers, stars
• Textiles, leather works, rugs are highly prized
• Muslim rulers built beautiful palaces and mosques, richly
decorated with mosaics, calligraphy, geometrical designs
Page 10: Kingdoms of Africa
• Anthropologists believe humanity 1st arose in E. Africa
• Kush civilization early iron-producing center became rich
selling iron, ivory, ebony, wood, and slaves
• Kingdom of Ethiopia developed own form of Christianity
Page 9: The Gold-Salt Trade
• Create a map featuring Africa’s Gold-Salt Trade
• Please refer to page 128 in textbook
• Include: drawing, labeling, and color to your illustration
Page 10: Kingdoms of Africa and The Gold-Salt
• The Sahara Desert was a barrier 4 trade between
Mediterranean world and S. Africa
• Travelers found oasis and developed paths to cross the
• Merchants motivated 2 cross Sahara because of gold &
other riches in W. Africa
• W. Africa lacked salt, salt is needed 4 human survival
• Merchants traveled on camel caravans across Sahara with
blocks of salt 2 trade 4 gold
• Thriving trade based on salt-gold
• Ideas exchanged such as Islamic beliefs
Kingdom of Ghana (750-1200)
• Developed in region between Senegal and Niger Rivers
• Made: iron swords, spears, lances to take control of trade
• Kings of Ghana taxed the routes used 4 gold-salt trade
• With this $ they created army with large cavalry
• Built capital city and governed a large area with officials
and nobles
• Kings appointed nobles
• Nobles had to make sure their land paid taxes
• 1076 Muslims from N. Africa invaded Ghana
• Ghana never fully recovered
• Ghana became several smaller states
Kingdom of Mali (1240-1400 )
• 1240 people of Mali conquered old capital of Ghana and
created a new empire
• Kings took control of salt and gold mines
• Mail’s rulers converted to Islam
• Most of people did not and stayed with their own
traditional beliefs
• Mansa Musa- Mali’s most famous ruler, expanded kingdom
• Brought Muslim scholars and architects back to Mali
• Ordered palace and mosque built in Timbuktu
• Important center for several universities
• Because of the importance of the Koran, many people
learned how to read and write
• Ibn Battuta, an Arab traveler, did extensive traveling in
• Because of Ibn scholars know much about the life in Africa
and the Middle East
• Rulers after Mansa Mus were not as good, kingdom
collapsed in the 1400’s
Kingdom of Songhai (1464-1600)
• In 1464, Sultan Sunni Ali, ruler of the Songhai people,
captured Timbuktu
• The Kingdom of Songhai became the largest of W. Africa’s
• Grew rich from trade across the Sahara
• Expanded trade to Europe and Asia
• Created elaborate system of taxation and communication
• The Kingdom of Songhai only lasted 130 years
• Morocco invaded W. Africa for its riches
• Was able to defeat Songhai because they used gunpowder
and the Kingdom used spears and arrows
• Morocco was unable to govern from long distance
• Kingdom split up into independent areas
• Was the last great W. African kingdom
Other African States
Ife and Benin
• famous for their copper and bronze statues
• 16th century, became involved in the slave trade
• traded captured people for guns and iron goods with
• One of the best trading kingdoms
• Large gold deposits
• Traded gold, copper and ivory
Coastal Cities of East Africa
• Merchants from Arabia and India would buy gold from
these cities
Family Roles in Africa
• Many African societies, boys and girls would be separated
at puberty and have special ceremonies
• Marriages arranged by families
• Groom paid a dowry
• Under Islam, women could only do household chores