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Semester Test Review
Importance of Carbon
Macromolecules (Carbohydrate, Lipid, Protein, Nucleic Acid)
○ Carbohydrate: Sugar, glucose, energy, CHO 1:2:1
○ Lipid: Phospholipid, store energy, CHO
○ Protein: Amino Acids, CHON
○ Nucleic Acid: Nucleotides, DNA and RNA, CHONP
Photosynthesis: Process by which producers turn light energy into chemical energy
○ Producers (plants) only, Chloroplast of the cell
○ CO2 + H2O
Sunlight ---> O2 + C6H12O6
○ Plants convert CO2 into O2 for consumers and make Glucose (food) for themselves
and consumers.
○ Removes carbon dioxide and releases oxygen.
○ Photosynthesis is limited by the amount of CO2, sunlight, temperature, and
Cellular Respiration: Process by which chemical energy is converted into usable energy.
○ All life, so plants and animals, Mitochondria in eukaryotes
○ O2 + C6H12O6 ---> CO2 + H2O + ATP
○ The main purpose is to convert glucose (food) into usable energy in the form of ATP.
○ Removes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
○ Aerobic Respiration: Normal type that uses oxygen
○ Anaerobic Respiration: Alternative that does not require oxygen, also called
■ Alcoholic fermentation: makes alcohol as byproduct; yeast, alcohol, bread
■ Lactic Acid fermentation: makes lactate as byproduct; muscles, bacteria, yogurt
○ Food chain and web
○ Energy and biomass pyramid
○ 10% rule
○ Predation, Competition
○ Symbiosis: Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
○ Carrying Capacity
○ Limiting factors for population growth
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