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BLUE BIOLOGY UNIT 1:
Name _________________
Prologue Chapter: Biology and Molecular Prospective
Key Terms: Bioethics, Biotechnology, Growth hormone, AIDS, Science processes, Nature of science, Theory, Hypothesis, Pseudoscience, Evolution, Natural
selection, Darwin, Lamarck, Adaptations, Variations.
Background Information
 Thousands of years ago, ideas about health and nature were characterized by tradition and magic. Science provides a structure for studying
the world in a way that explain natural phenomenon.
 This chapter focuses on the study of life, with how Biology unites scientific methods with technology to search for answers to questions
about the living world.

Target
1. Identify and discuss the importance of biology and biotechnology in everyday life.
2. Explain how scientists develop a theory in science, and explain how it is different
from scientific facts.
3. Recognize and apply criteria that scientists use to evaluate the validity of scientific
claims and theories.
4. Identify similarities and differences between the process of science and the
development of the theory of evolution.
5. Compare and contrast Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection with
Lamarck’s theory.
6. Explain why scientific explanations must meet certain criteria (e.g., be consistent
with experimental/observational evidence about nature, be open to critique and
modification, be subject to peer review, use ethical reporting methods and
procedures).
7. Describe the fundamental assumptions of science, and recognize the differences
between pseudoscience and true science.
8. Demonstrate proficiency and become familiar with the operation of and proper
use of a microscope.
9. Explain the process of science and identify the tools scientists use to complete this
process.
10. Apply the process of science to create and complete an inquiry lab with
investigating the relationship between food and energy production in yeast.
11. Explain what an observation and inference mean in science, and be able to classify
examples as being an observation or an inference.
12. Explain why all scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence
becomes available to the scientific community.
Book Section
P.1
P.1, P.2, P.3
Activities/Lessons/Labs
Notes and discussion
Notes and discussion
P.4
Notes and discussion
P.5, P.6
Notes and discussion
P.5, P.6
Notes and discussion, video clips
P.6
Notes and discussion, yeast lab report
P.7
Notes and discussion
Lab
Notes and discussion, microscope lab
P.7, P.8
Notes and discussion
P.7, Lab
Notes and discussion, yeast lab
P.7, P.8
Notes and discussion
P.7, P.8
Notes and discussion
BLUE BIOLOGY UNIT 1: Energy, Matter, and Organization. CHAPTER 1: The Chemistry of Life
Name _________________
Key Terms: Activation Energy, Amino Acids, Carbohydrate, Covalent Bond, Disaccharides, DNA, Genes, Ionic Bond, Lipids, Monosaccharides,
Nucleic Acids, Polysaccharides, Proteins, RNA.
Background Information:
 All living and nonliving things are made of matter.
 The structures of molecules and compounds give them their characteristics.
 Target
1. Identify subatomic particles and describe how they are arranged in
atoms.
2. Explain the relationship between atoms, molecules, elements, and
compounds.
3. Understand and be able to read chemical formulas and equations.
4. Describe the different types of chemical bonds.
5. Explain how the pH scale is and its practical use.
6. Explain the difference between organic and inorganic compounds.
7. Evaluate the role that buffers play, and relate their use to the pH scale.
8. Identify the four types of macromolecules and their building blocks.
9. Compare and contrast the characteristics and functions of the four types
of macromolecules.
10. Infer what would happen if an amino acid is rearranged in a protein.
11. Describe the building blocks of nucleic acids and the structure of DNA.
12. Explain the importance of nucleic acids in inheritance from generation to
generation.
Book Section
1.2
Activities/Lessons/Labs
Notes & discussion, reading
1.1
Notes & discussion, reading
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.7,1.8,1.9,1.10
Notes & discussion, reading
Notes & discussion, reading
Notes & discussion, reading
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, pH lab
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
1.9
1.10
1.10, 1.11,1.12
Notes & discussion, video
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
BLUE BIOLOGY Unit 1: Energy, Matter, and Organization CHAPTER 2 TARGETS: Energy, Life, and the Biosphere.
Name ___________________
Vocabulary: Abiotic, ADP, ATP, Autotrophic, Biotic, Biosphere, Catalyst, Cellular Respiration, Chemical Energy, Chemosynthesis, Consumer,
Decomposition (reactions), Entropy, Enzymes, Food Web, Decomposer, Heterotroph, Nutrient, Photosynthesis, Producer, Synthesis (reactions), 1st
and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics.
Background Information:
 All living organisms need energy.
 The biochemistry of life revolves around building up and breaking down molecules and compounds.

Targets
1) Describe the biological criteria that need to be met in order for an
organism to be considered alive.
2) Know why organisms need energy and how they obtain it.
3) Describe the energy flow through a system.
Book
section
2.1
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
2.2
2.3
Notes & discussion
Notes, food web activity, & compost
activity.
Notes, food web activity, & disappearing
marshlands
Notes & discussion
4) Diagram the flow of energy using food chains and food webs, and
pyramids.
5) Explain the first and second law of thermodynamics and infer how they
affect living systems.
6) Describe the function of enzymes & substrates in biochemical reactions.
2.3
7) Compare and contrast synthesis and decomposition reactions in
metabolism.
8) Explain how cells store energy temporarily as ATP.
9) Evaluate and explain the importance of ATP in cellular energy transfer.
10) Compare and contrast intracellular and extracellular digestion.
11) Explain how and where digestion breaks down food into smaller
molecules.
2.7
2.4, 2.5
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.9
2.9, 2.10,
2.11
Notes & discussion
Notes, Jell-O lab, enzyme yeast lab, &
demos
Notes, Jell-O lab, & compost activity
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
BLUE BIOLOGY Unit 1: Energy, Matter, and Organization
CHAPTER 3 TARGETS: Exchanging Materials with the Environment
Name ___________________
Vocabulary: Cytoplasm, transport proteins, selectively permeable, glycoproteins, diffusion, concentration gradient, osmosis, turgor, passive
transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis, cuticle.
Background Information:
 Organisms that are living share similar characteristics.
 Many molecular processes are the result of interactions between atoms, elements, molecules and compounds.

Targets
Book
section
3.1
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
2) Describe what kinds of materials can move through and how they are
exchanged across membranes.
3.2
Notes & discussion and lab 3A: Cells &
movement of materials
3) Compare and contrast the following types of cell transport: osmosis, diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, active and passive transport.
3.3 & 3.4
4) Compare and contrast hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic.
3.3
5) Based on the concentration inside and outside of a cell or container, predict
the movement of water and other substances.
3.3 & 3.4
6) Evaluate and explain how various organisms are adapted to maintain an
appropriate water balance to maintain homeostasis.
3.5 & 3.6
Notes & discussion, crossword, lab 3A:
Cells & movement of materials, lab 3B:
Cell size and diffusion
Notes & discussion, crossword, lab 3A:
Cells & movement of materials
Notes & discussion, lab 3A: Cells &
movement of materials, diffusion activity
3
Notes & discussion and in class examples
7) Explain how organisms are able to process nitrogenous waste.
3.7
Notes & discussion
8) Analyze the structure and function of the human nephron.
3.8
Notes & discussion
9) Describe the major components and functions of the following systems:
circulatory, urinary, and endocrine.
3.8
Notes & discussion
1) Describe the structure and function of membranes in living organisms.
Notes & discussion
BLUE BIOLOGY Unit 1: Energy, Matter, and Organization
CHAPTER 4 TARGETS: Autotrophy: collecting energy from the nonliving environment
Name ___________________
Vocabulary: photoautotroph, chemoautotroph, pigments, chloroplast, chlorophyll, light Reactions, calvin cycle, NADP+, ATP synthase, photoinhibition, limiting
factors, photorespiration, bundle sheath, CAM.
Background Information:
 Some living organisms use nonliving materials to obtain energy from their environment in order to survive.
 It is important to understand how these organisms obtain energy, since they provide heterotrophs with the needed energy to survive.
 Targets
Book
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
section
1) State the importance of photosynthesis and explain how photosynthetic organisms
4.1 & 4.2
Notes & discussion
use the process of photosynthesis.
2) Identify the cellular structures involved in photosynthesis.
4.2, 4.3, 4.4
3) Explain the interaction between pigments, absorption of light, and refection of light.
4.2
Notes & discussion, leaf diagram, stomata
lab
Notes & discussion, chromatography lab
4) Show how the chemical reaction of photosynthesis can be represented by a chemical
4.2
Notes & discussion
4.3 & 4.4
Notes & discussion, PS worksheet, What
in the world is PS? worksheet
4.3 & 4.4
Notes & discussion, PS worksheet, What
in the world is PS? worksheet
4.5 & 4.6
Notes & discussion, PS worksheet, What
in the world is PS? worksheet
8) Describe the effects of photosynthesis on the atmosphere.
4.7
Notes & discussion, Rate of PS lab
9) Compare photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs and their distribution in the
4.8
Notes & discussion
4.1-4.7
Rate of PS Lab
formula
5) Identify the steps by which light energy is converted to chemical energy during the
light reactions and Calvin cycle.
6) Explain the interdependence of the products of the light reactions to the products of
the Calvin cycle.
7) Describe how environmental factors affect the rate of photosynthesis (CAM, C3, and
C4 plants) and photorespiration.
environment
10) Design and conduct an experiment, including quantitative measurements,
demonstrating effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis.
BLUE BIOLOGY Unit 1: Energy, Matter, and Organization
CHAPTER 5 TARGETS: Cell Respiration- Releasing Chemical Energy
Name ___________________
Vocabulary: Cellular respiration, Aerobic, Anaerobic, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, NAD+, Electron transport system, Pyruvic acid, Lactic acid
fermentation, Mitochondria, Coenzyme A, Cytochromes, Facultative aerobes, Obligate anaerobes, Obligate aerobes, Hydrolysis.
Background Information:
 The most efficient way for heterotrophs to obtain energy stored in nutrients is cell respiration.
 It is important to understand how these organisms obtain chemical energy and convert it into free energy for cellular work to survive.
 Targets
Book
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
section
1) Explain how metabolism is related to cellular respiration.
5.1
Notes & discussion, video: energy in &
energy out
2) Describe how glycolysis and the 2 stages of cellular respiration are related.
5.2
Notes & discussion, video: energy in &
energy out
3) Explain where glycolysis, Krebs, and electron transport system (ETS) are
5.3, 5.4, 5.5, Notes & discussion, cell respiration &
occurring in the cell and the significance of these areas.
5.6
photosynthesis diagram
4) Explain the importance of the electron transport system to the production of
ATP
5.6
Notes & discussion
5) Discuss the importance of oxygen to respiration and photosynthesis.
5.7
6) Write the balanced chemical equation that represents cellular respiration.
5.1
Notes & discussion, cell respiration &
photosynthesis diagram, cell respiration
lab
Notes & discussion
7) Explain how photosynthetic organisms use both photosynthesis and
respiration.
5.7 & 5.9
Notes & discussion
8) Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
5.3 & 5.6
Notes & discussion
9) Explain how cell respiration makes more ATP than fermentation
5.3 & 5.6
Cell respiration lab
10) Investigate cellular respiration using yeast as a model.
5.3
Notes & discussion
CHAPTER 6 TARGETS: Cell Structures and Their Functions
Vocabulary: Cell theory, Cell wall, Centrioles, Chloroplasts, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Eukaryotic cell, Flagella, Golgi
apparatus, Lysosome, Nucleoid, Nucleus, Organelle, Plasma membrane, Prokaryotic cell, Ribosomes, Vacuoles.
Background Information:
 Cells are the basic unit of life.
 Cells are extremely complex, and we continue to learn how they are made and how they work, in order to help explain the complexity of
life, especially in relation to health concerns.
 Targets
Book
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
section
1) Explain the two basic principles of the cell theory, including the scientists who
6.1
Notes & Discussion, cell video
developed it, the historical perspective, and its importance.
2) Predict the possible effects of improved technology on the study of cells, and
compare the light and electron microscope.
6.1
Notes & Discussion, cell video
3) Describe the similarities and differences of cell structures in prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells and give examples of each.
6.2, 6.3, 6.4
Notes & Discussion, cell video, Lab 6A
4) Given any image of a eukaryotic cell, identify and describe the function of each
organelle.
5) Describe the similarities and differences of structures between a plant and
animal cell; include the functions.
6) Construct an accurate model of a plant or animal cell.
7) Describe ways in which cells interact with each other to control life functions
and to maintain homeostasis.
8) Given examples of different environments, be able to analyze the advantages
and disadvantages of being a multicellular or unicellular organism.
9) Compare and contrast the structure and function of subcellular components of
motility. (ex: cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia).
10) Define and provide examples of each level of organization, and explain where
cells fit into this hierarchy. (ex: biosphere, biome, ecosystem, etc.)
6.4
Notes & Discussion, Cell Project, Lab 6A
6.4
Notes & Discussion, Cell project
6.4
6.5, 6.6, 6.7
Cell Project
Notes & Discussion, cell video
6.5, 6.6, 6.7
Notes & Discussion
6.3, 6.4
Notes & Discussion, Lab 6A
6.7
Notes & Discussion
CHAPTER 8 TARGETS: The Cell Cycle
Vocabulary: Anaphase, Cell cycle, Centromere, DNA replication, Interphase, G0 phase, G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, Mitosis, Mutation, Metaphase,
Sister chromatids, Telophase.
Background Information:
 Individual cells must grow and reproduce, just like multicellular organisms.
 Cells go through a series of ordered processes that result in a duplicate cell, and these processes are strictly regulated to try to prevent
errors that can damage or kill a cell, or even the organism itself.

Targets
Book
section
8.1
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
2) Describe the phases of the cell cycle and how they are controlled.
8.2
Notes & discussion, cell cycle note sheet
3) Describe the phases of mitosis.
8.6 & 8.7
4) Identify the phases of mitosis in different types of cells.
8.6 & 8.7
5) Compare and contrast cytokinesis in plants and animals.
8.6 & 8.7
6) Explain how the cell cycle is regulated and what happens when it is not.
8.8 & 8.9
Notes & discussion, mitosis note sheet,
mitosis & cytokinesis video, mitosis
activity
Notes & discussion, mitosis notes, mitosis
& cytokinesis video, Lab 8B pg 731
Notes & discussion, mitosis & cytokinesis
video
Notes & discussion
1) Compare and contrast the processes of cell division in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes.
Notes & discussion
CHAPTER 8 & 9 TARGETS: DNA Replication and Expressing Genetic Information
Vocabulary: Nucleotide bases, Replication origin, DNA polymerase, Replisome, Mutagens, Excision repair, Anticodon, Bacteriophage, Codon,
Genetic code, Introns, Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA), Translation, Transcription, Triplet, Virus.
Background Information:
 Living organisms store information in their genetic material, and in order to survive they need to be able to read and use the information.
 These chapters focus on how organisms can replicate their genetic material and how organisms can use this stored information.

Targets
1) Summarize the events of DNA replication.
2) Explain how DNA replication errors are fixed, and the importance of correcting
these errors.
3) Explain the relationship between DNA and RNA in protein synthesis.
Book
section
8.3 & 8.4
8.5
8.4 & 9.1
4) Explain why proteins are important in biological systems.
5) Identify the stages of transcription.
9.2
9.3
6) Summarize the events that occur in RNA processing.
9.4
7) Describe the stages of translation.
9.5
8) Compare mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, and explain their role in transcription.
9.1 & 9.5
9) Describe the consequences of RNA translation errors.
9.7
10) Use an mRNA codon chart to determine amino acid sequences of example
polypeptides.
11) Explain the relationship between viruses and host cells.
12) Explain the impact viruses have on living systems.
9.5
9.8
9.9
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity.
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity, hidden message worksheet
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity, hidden message worksheet
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity
Notes & discussion, protein synthesis
activity, hidden message worksheet
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
CHAPTER 12 TARGETS: Reproduction
Vocabulary: Clone, Diploid, Haploid, Homologous, Somatic, Meiosis, Spores, Crossing over, Polar bodies, Conjugation, Alternation of Generations,
Pollen, Carpels, Ovary, Ovules, Anther, Pollination.
Background Information:
 Reproduction is a basic function of living things.
 Reproduction is tightly regulated and is important in explaining how species survive.

Targets
Book
section
12.1
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
2) Explain the importance of meiosis in maintaining chromosome numbers.
12.2
Notes & discussion
3) Identify and explain the stages of meiosis.
12.3
Notes & discussion, meiosis note sheet
4) Infer the advantages of a dominant diploid stage in the life cycle of plants and
animals.
5) Relate the process of fertilization in flowering plants to their successful
domination of land environments.
12.4 & 12.5
Notes & discussion
12.5
Notes & discussion, flower diagram
1) Describe vegetative reproduction (asexual) in plants and asexual reproduction
in animals.
Notes & discussion
CHAPTER 13 TARGETS: Patterns of Inheritance
Vocabulary: Allele, Karyotype, Genome, Probability, Principle of Segregation, Genotype, Phenotype, Dominant Allele, Recessive allele,
Codominant Alleles, Incomplete Dominant Alleles, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Carrier, Multiple Alleles, Principle of Independent Assortment, XLinked Trait, Nondisjunction.
Background Information:
 Traits that appear in the population are a result of the organism’s heritable traits and the environment.
 Meiosis plays a significant role in the biodiversity that exists in and between populations.
 Targets
Book
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
section
1. Explain how heredity and the environment affect an organism’s genetic
13.1, 13.2,
Notes and class discussion.
make-up and development.
13.3
2. Describe and show how the principles of probability relate to genetics.
13.4
Notes and class discussion, monohybrid
packet.
3. Define and provide examples of the following: genotype, phenotype,
13.5, 13.7
Notes and class discussion, quiz,
dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, incomplete dominant
monohybrid & dihybrid worksheets, sexalleles, homozygous, heterozygous, and carrier.
linked traits worksheet, multiple alleles
worksheet.
4. Explain the relationship between alleles, genes, and chromosomes.
13.3
Notes and class discussion
5. 5. Distinguish between the law of segregation and law of independent
13.5
Notes and class discussion
assortment.
6. Distinguish between gene linkages (sex-linked genes and linked genes),
13.7, 13.8,
Notes and class discussion, monohybrid &
multiple alleles and multifactorial inheritance.
13.9, 13.11 dihybrid worksheets, sex-linked traits
worksheet, multiple alleles worksheet.
7. Design and complete punnett squares, interpret pedigrees for both sex13.5, 13.8,
Notes and class discussion, monohybrid &
linked and autosomal traits, including calculating and predicting
13.9
dihybrid worksheets, sex-linked traits
phenotypic and genotypic ratios and probabilities.
worksheet, multiple alleles worksheet.
8. Infer parental genotypes and phenotypes from offspring data presented in 13.5
Notes and class discussion, monohybrid &
pedigree charts and from the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of offspring.
dihybrid worksheets, sex-linked traits
worksheet, multiple alleles worksheet.
9. Describe the mode of inheritance in commonly inherited disorders (ex:
13.10
Notes and class discussion
sickle cell anemia, Down syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, and PKU).
10. Summarize the effects of nondisjunction
13.10
Notes and class discussion
CHAPTER 14 & 15 TARGETS: Other Forms of Inheritance and Advances in Molecular Genetics
Vocabulary: Epistasis, genomic imprinting, mitochondrial DNA, promoter, transposable elements, DNA sequencing,
gene therapy, frameshift mutation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), point mutation, restriction enzymes, translocated.
Background Information:
 While Mendel’s basic principles of genetics hold true scientists have found out that inheritance and gene expression is often more complex.
 Research and technology have continued to contribute significantly to genetic advancements and studying diseases, but with these
advancements ethical issues often arise.
 Targets
Book
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
section
1. Explain how genes function.
14.1
Notes & discussion.
2. Describe the 4 patterns of nuclear inheritance and define cytoplasmic
14.2
Notes & discussion.
inheritance and explain how it is different.
3. Define epistasis and explain how it applies to genetics.
14.4
Notes & discussion.
4. Define transposable elements and explain how they work.
14.6
Notes & discussion, Lab 14A Jumping
genes.
5. Describe the human genome project and explain the impact it has on
15.1
Notes & discussion, Human Genome
society.
Project video.
6. Define functional genomics and explain how it helps scientists
15.2
Notes & discussion.
7. List and explain the new technologies that have contributed to the human 15.3
Notes & discussion HGP video.
genome project.
8. Describe the different types of mutations and explain what types of
15.4
Notes & discussion, genetic disease
diseases or problems occur due to these changes.
report.
9. Explain the difference between gene therapy and traditional treatments
15.5
Notes & discussion genetic disease
for genetic diseases.
report.
10. Discuss and provide examples of ethical, legal, and social implications of
15.6
Notes & discussion, genetic disease
genetic technology and the information it provides.
report, bioethics activities and handouts.
CHAPTER 16 TARGETS: Population Genetics
Vocabulary: Microevolution, Macroevolution, Population genetics, Gene pool, Polymorphic, Hardy-Weinberg model, Gene flow, Genetic drift,
Founder effect, Inbreeding, Population bottleneck, Inbreeding depression, Artificial selection, Quantitative traits.
Background Information:
 No two organisms are exactly alike. Even members of the same species show differences in their anatomy, behavior, and genes.
 Variation is what allows populations to adapt to new environmental conditions or to be selectively bred for desirable traits. This chapter
examines the different forces that affect variation among individuals.
 Targets
Book
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
section
1. Define the list of vocabulary words and explain how they apply to the
16.1-16.6
Notes and class discussion.
concepts in this chapter.
2. Explain how the study of genetics impacts population genetics.
16.1
Notes and class discussion
3. Compare and contrast microevolution and macroevolution, and explain
16.1
Notes and class discussion
what causes a population to evolve.
4. Discuss the factors that can affect gene-pool equilibrium.
16.1 & 16.2 Notes and class discussion, Natural
selection lab.
5. Explain the Hardy-Weinberg model.
16.3
Notes and class discussion
6. Apply the Hardy-Weinberg model to figure out the frequency that different 16.3
Notes and class discussion, HW practice
genotypes and phenotypes occur in a population.
problems.
7. Discuss how natural selection impacts evolution and provide an example.
16.4 & 16.5 Notes and class discussion, Natural
selection lab.
8. Explain how genetic drift effects large and small populations.
16.4 & 16.5 Notes and class discussion
9. Discuss how multifactorial traits, or quantitative traits, impact
16.6
Notes and class discussion
microevolution.
CHAPTER 17 TARGETS: The Origin of Life
Vocabulary: Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes, Endosymbiont, Endosymbiont hypothesis, Heterotroph hypothesis, Methanogens, Stromatolites.
Background Information:
 The origin of life on Earth is one of the questions that evokes the most controversy and curiosity.
 This chapter looks at the different forms of evidence scientists have gathered and uses this to find plausible answers to how life on Earth
began.

Targets
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
1) Describe the probable conditions of early Earth.
Book
section
17.1 & 17.2
2) Compare and Contrast the hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth.
17.3 &17.4
Notes & discussion
3) Identify and list probable characteristics of early life forms on Earth.
17.3
Notes & discussion, time line activity
4) Compare and contrast chemical and biological evolution.
5) Compare models for the origin of cell like structures.
6) Describe the fossil record for Eukaryotes and how that has contributed to the
theory of evolution.
17.4 & 17.5
17.6 & 17.7
17.7
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, time line activity
Notes & discussion
CHAPTER 18 TARGETS:
Vocabulary: Biodiversity, Binomial nomenclature, Cladistics, Genus, Homologies, Invertebrates, 5 Kingdoms (Plant, Fungi, Animal, Protista,
Monera), Phenetics, Phylum, Species, Taxonomy, Vertebrates
Background Information:
 We share the planet with a significant number of other organisms, which are all very diverse and is referred to biodiversity.
 In order to deal with this large biodiversity on Earth we need a logical way to categorize and classify all of the different living things to help
us better understand this life and the interconnectedness.

Targets
1) Discuss the difficulty of defining a species.
Book
section
18.1
2) Explain the biological meaning of species.
18.1
Notes & discussion
3) Explain homology and give examples of homologous structures.
18.2
Notes & discussion
4) Describe the classification hierarchies used to categorize organisms and how
they relate to one another.
5) Describe three ways to classify species.
18.2 & 18.3
18.3 & 18.4
6) Describe how the general characteristics of the five kingdoms differ.
7) Predict the effect of new knowledge on classification systems.
18.5
18.6
8) List each of the major levels in the hierarchy of taxa: kingdom, phylum, class,
order, family, genus, and species; and use these to explain organisms
relationships.
9) Explain the binomial nomenclature system.
18.5
10) Compare the major divisions of animals.
18.5
18.3
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, classification
conundrum, classification jar lab
Notes & discussion, classification
conundrum, classification jar lab
Notes & discussion, classification jar lab
Notes & discussion, classification
conundrum, classification jar lab
Notes & discussion, classification jar lab
Notes & discussion, classification
conundrum
Notes & discussion
CHAPTER 19 TARGETS:
Vocabulary: Paleontology, Coevolution, Speciation, Polyploidy, Adaptive radiation, Stasis, Gradualism, Punctuated equilibrium.
Background Information:
 The process of natural selection is a critical part of evolution and how organisms adapt and change over time.
 This chapter examines evidence of evolution and examines different patterns of evolution.

Targets
1) Cite examples from fossils, ecology, and homologies that support the theory of
evolution.
2) Discuss the genetic and molecular evidence for evolution.
Book
section
19.1 & 19.2
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
Notes & discussion, moth activity
19.3
Notes & discussion, salamander activity
3) Discuss the isolation mechanisms that can cause speciation
19.4
Notes & discussion, salamander activity
4) Describe patterns in evolution such as punctuated equilibrium
19.5
Notes & discussion
5) Distinguish between catastrophism and gradualism
19.5
Notes & discussion
6) Explain how Earth’s life-forms have evolved from earlier species as a
consequence of interactions of species, to increase its numbers
7) Explain how Earth’s life-forms have evolved from earlier species as a
consequence of interactions from genetic variability of offspring due to mutation
and recombination of DNA.
19.4 & 19.5
19.3
Notes & discussion, moth activity,
salamander activity
Notes & discussion, salamander activity
CHAPTER 22 TARGETS: Behavior
Vocabulary: Animal Society, Anthropomorphism, Association study, Caste System, Conditioning, Correlation, Dominance Hierarchies, Fixed Action
Pattern, Habituation, Heritability, Imprinting, Trial and Error Learning, Pheromone, Response.
Background Information:
 Behavior is partly the result of natural selection, mostly affecting the ability of an individual organism to survive and reproduce.
 This chapter introduces the major concepts in the study of behavior, helping us to better understand why animals, humans included, act the
way they do.
Targets
Book
section
1. Compare and contrast innate and learned behavior.
22.2
2. Describe and provide examples of innate and learned behavior and explain how 22.2
they are important to the adaptation and survival of the species.
3. Explain how internal and external stimuli affect behavior and provide
22.1, 22.4
examples.
4. Discuss how human behavior is influenced by innate and learned behavior
22.3, 22.4
patterns, and how these behavioral and hereditary factors influence genetic
variation.
5. Explain the value of organized societies and distinguish between populations
22.7
that are and are not societies.
6. Describe the role of communication in social behavior.
22.7, 22.8
7. Explain the differences between learning by imprinting, habituation,
22.2
conditioning, and reasoning (trial-and-error).
8. Describe different methods for studying behavior.
22.5, 22.6
9. Describe and give examples of human and non-human behaviors.
22.8
10. Design and conduct an experiment to investigate fruit fly behavior that is
22.2
learned or innate.
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
Discussion & notes, fruit fly lab
Discussion & notes, wolf video
Discussion & notes
Discussion & notes, trial-and-error lab
Discussion & notes, wolf video
Discussion & notes, wolf video
Discussion & notes, trial-and-error lab
Discussion & notes
Discussion & notes, wolf video
Discussion & notes, fruit fly lab
CHAPTER 24 & 25 TARGETS: Ecosystem Structure and Function & Change in the Ecosystem
Vocabulary Chapter 24: Abiotic, Biotic, Trophic structure, Herbivores, Carnivores, Energy pyramid, Biomass, Productivity, Predation, Niche, Competitive exclusion principle,
Mutualism, Parasitism, Commensalism, Exponential growth, Population density, Logistic growth, Carrying capacity, Predator prey cycle.
Vocabulary Chapter 25: Succession, Climax community, Biome, Terrestrial Communities (Desert, Savanna, Temperate deciduous forest, Temperate grassland, Tundra, Taiga,
Rain forest), Aquatic Communities (Photic zone, Aphotic zone, Intertidal zone, Neritic zone, Oceanic zone, Pelagic Zone, Benthic Zone, Abyssal zone), Zooplankton, Phytoplankton
Background Information:
 Organisms depend on one another to survive, but are constantly influenced by their environment, and over time must adapt and compete to survive.
 Our future depends on whether or not we learn take care of our natural world, by understanding and preserving our different ecosystems.

Targets
1. Provide examples of and explain the connections between: biosphere, biome, ecosystem,
community, population, species, habitat, and niche.
2. Discuss biotic and abiotic factors that affect land and aquatic biomes.
3. Describe the relationship between autotrophs and heterotrophs in relation to the flow of energy
and nutrients in the ecosystem.
4. State the 10% rule of energy pyramids and explain its significance.
5. Explain the competitive-exclusion principle and the role of adaptation in reducing competition
between species and similar niches.
6. Explain how carbon, nitrogen and water are recycled in an ecosystem.
7. Compare and contrast exponential growth and logistic growth.
8. Explain why the amount of life an environment can support is limited by the available matter and
energy and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials.
9. Explain and give examples of how organisms cooperate and compete in ecosystems. Include
relationships such as: competition, symbiosis (mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism), and
predation.
10. Explain how interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms can generate ecosystems
that are stable for years.
11. Explain the concept of carrying capacity and predict what will happen to a population that
exceeds the carrying capacity.
12. Describe different types of aquatic and terrestrial biomes.
13. Construct and interpret climatograms in order to identify and describe different biomes on
earth.
14. Discuss the consequences of new species moving into a new area. Provide an example.
15. Explain the process of ecological succession, and describe the different communities that result.
16. Discuss and evaluate the significance of human interference with major ecosystems; connect
this to the sustainability of the future of the planet.
Book section
24.1
Activities/Lessons/Labs/Assignments
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
24.1
24.2
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
24.2
24.3
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
24.4
24.6
24.5 & 24.6
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
24.3
Notes & discussion
24.2
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
24.6
Notes & discussion, reindeer lab
25.1 & 25.2
Lab
25.3
25.4
25.5 & 25.6
Notes & discussion, climatogram activity,
biome video clips
Notes & discussion, climatogram activity
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion
Notes & discussion