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The Solar
System
We’ve always known
that there were seven
objects in the Solar
System.
They were called
“planetos” (English –
“planets)(Greek for
“wanderer”).
This is because
they moved
(“wandered”) in
the sky.
These seven:
Mars
Jupiter
Sun
Saturn
Mercury
Moon
Venus
These objects could
all be seen without
a telescope.
It was thought all
these objects revolved
around the Earth.
They were
wrong!
Everything in the
Solar System revolves
around the Sun!
Nothing new was
discovered until
1609.
In 1609, Galileo used a
telescope to look at the
evening sky.
Source: Wikimedia Commons
Galileo discovered:
“Ears” on Saturn
Craters on the Moon
Sunspots
Jupiter’s Four “Galilean” Moons
Pictures Source: The Galileo Project, Rice University
A “new” planet
was discovered in
1781.
Using a 40-foot
long telescope …
Source: Wikimedia Commons
Sir William Herschel
discovered Uranus.
Source: Wikimedia Commons
Neptune was first
observed in 1846.
Today’s telescopes are
larger and improved.
We see objects better
today than any time
in history!
Thousands of
telescopes observe the
skies each night.
Source: Kitt Peak National Observatory
One example is the Keck
Observatory in Hawaii has two
telescopes with 10 meter mirrors
(about 33 feet).
Source: Keck Observatory
The Hubble Space
Telescopes explores the
universe in Earth orbit.
So, what do we know
about our Solar
System?
Our Solar System is
made up of:
The Rocky Planets (made
up of rock!)
Mercury
Earth
Venus
Mars
Our Solar System is
made up of:
The Gas Giants (made up
primarily of gas!)
Jupiter
Uranus
Saturn
Neptune
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Dwarf Planets
Ceres (rocky)
Pluto (icy & rocky)
MakeMake* - Icy
*Mah-key Mah-key
Eris - icy
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Asteroids
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Asteroids
The vast majority of
the asteroids are found
between the orbits of
Mars & Jupiter.
Source: NASA Solar System Website
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Asteroids
Asteroids are
rocky bodies.
Source: JPL Photojournal
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Asteroids
There are over
750,000
asteroids.
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
Source: NASA Astronomy Picture of
the Day August 26, 1995
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
Comets are found in
the Oort Cloud.
Source: StarrySkies.com
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
The Oort Cloud is six
trillion miles away
from the Sun.
Source: StarrySkies.com
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
Comets are basically
“dirty snowballs.”
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
They are made of ice, dry
ice, frozen ammonia and
dirt & dust.
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
As they approach the Sun,
they melt and may be
easily seen.
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Comets
There are over one trillion
comets in the Oort Cloud.
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Kuiper Belt
Source: Lunar Planetary Laboratory,
University of Arizona, Outer Solar System
Debris webpage
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Kuiper Belt
Kuiper Belt Objects are
found beyond the orbit of
Neptune to about five billion
miles from the Sun.
Source: Windows on the Universe
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Kuiper Belt
Kuiper Belt Objects
are icy bodies.
Source: University of Hawaii,
Institute for Astronomy, Dr. David
Jewitt’s website
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Kuiper Belt
There are over
35,000 Kuiper
Belt Objects.
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Dust and Rocks
Source: Windows on the Universe
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Dust and Rocks
Space is full of dust and
rocks.
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Dust and Rocks
When they are in space,
they are called
“meteoroids.”
Source: NASA Stardust Website
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Dust and Rocks
When they enter our
atmosphere, they are
“meteors.”
Source: NASA Solar System
Exploration Website
Our Solar System is
made up of:
Other
Dust and Rocks
When they hit the
ground, they are
meteorites.
The planets in the
Solar System
Source: NASA StarChild website
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Source: answers.com – Terrestrial Plants
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mercury
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mercury
•Closest
planet to
Sun (1)
•Smallest
planet
(Rank #8)
Source: MESSENGER Mercury Website
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mercury
•Day is 59
Earth days
long
•Year is 88
Earth Days
Long
Source: MESSENGER Mercury Website
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mercury
•Weight on
planet –
Earth x .38
Source: MESSENGER Mercury Website
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Venus
Source: JPL Photojournal
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Venus
•Second
planet from
the Sun(2)
•Sixth largest
planet
(Rank #6)
Source: JPL Photojournal
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Venus
•Day is 243
Earth days
long
•Year is 225
days long
Source: JPL Photojournal
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Venus
•Weight on
planet –
x .86
Source: JPL Photojournal
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Earth
Source: NASA Galileo Mission
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Earth
•Third planet
from the
Sun(3)
•Fifth largest
planet
(Rank #5)
Source: NASA Apollo 17
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Earth
•Day is 24
hours long
•Year is 365
days long
Source: NASA Apollo 17
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Earth
•Weight on
planet – your
weight
Source: NASA Apollo 17
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mars
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mars
•Fourth planet
from the
Sun(4)
•Seventh
largest planet
(Rank #7)
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mars
•Day is 25
Earth hours
long
•Year is about
two Earth
years long
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Rocky Inner Planets
Mars
•Weight on
planet x .38
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Source: NASA/JPL Cassini-Huygens Website
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Jupiter
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Jupiter
•Fifth planet
from the Sun
(5)
•Largest planet
(Rank #1)
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Jupiter
•Day is ten
Earth hours
long
•Year is twelve
Earth years
long
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Jupiter
•Weight on
planet x 2.87
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Saturn
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Saturn
•Sixth planet
from the Sun
(6)
•Second
largest planet
(Rank #2)
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Saturn
•Day is 11
Earth hours
long
•Year is 29
Earth years
long
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Saturn
•Weight on
planet x 1.32
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Uranus
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Uranus
•Seventh
planet from
the Sun (7)
•Third largest
planet
(Rank #3)
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Uranus
•Day is 17
Earth hours
long
•Year is 84
Earth years
long
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Uranus
•Weight on
planet x .93
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Neptune
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Neptune
•Eighth planet
from the Sun
(8)
•Fourth largest
planet
(Rank #4)
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Neptune
•Day is 16
Earth hour
long
•Year is 165
Earth years
long
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
The planets in the
Solar System
The Outer Gas Giants
Neptune
•Weight on
planet x 1.23
Source: Space Telescope Science Institute
Planetary Records
Solar Facts
1,400,000 km
in diameter
Weight x 27
Planetary Records
Largest & Smallest Planets
Jupiter
134,200 km in
diameter
Mercury
4,900 km in
diameter
Weight – 287
Weight – 38
pounds (100
pounds (100
pounds on Earth) pounds on Earth)
Planetary Records
Nearest & Farthest from Sun
Mercury
Neptune
58,000,000 km
from Sun
2,900,000,000
km from Sun
Year is 88 Earth
Days Long
Year is 165 Earth
years Long
Keeping the Solar
System Together
What keeps the Solar
System together?
The force of gravity
holds the Solar
System together.
Keeping the Solar
System Together
What if there was no gravity?
All the planets
would fly off
into space.
Moon would
fly off into
space.
Keeping the Solar
System Together
What is the effect of gravity?
Planets revolve
around the
Sun.
Moon revolves
around the
Earth.
Keeping the Solar
System Together
What is the effect of gravity?
Large Mass = Large Gravity
Sun
Sun = weight x 27
Weigh More!
Jupiter
Jupiter = weight x 2.87
Keeping the Solar
System Together
What is the effect of gravity?
Small Mass = Small Gravity
Mercury
Mercury= weight x .38
Weigh Less!
Ceres
Ceres= weight x .oo2
(100 lbs = 4 ounces)
And that’s a quick
look at our Solar
System!
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