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Chapter 7
Drug Misuse and Addiction
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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Psychoactive Drugs
 Drugs that alter a person’s experiences or
consciousness
 Can cause intoxication
 A state in which sometimes unpredictable physical
and emotional changes occur
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Addictive Behavior
 Habits that have gotten out of control, with a
resulting negative effect on a person’s health
 Addiction is a chronic disease that disrupts the brain
systems that regulate motivation and reward
 What is addiction?
 Behavioral characteristics (psychological)
 Changes in brain chemistry (physiological)
 Development of tolerance
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Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM-5)
 Substance use disorder
 Continuum from mild to severe
 Dependence
 Can occur with or without a physical component
 DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder
 Severity determined by the number of criteria a
person meets
 2–3 criteria—mild disorder
 4–5 criteria—moderate disorder
 6 or more criteria—severe disorder
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The Development of
Addiction
 Often starts as a way to bring pleasure or avoid pain
 Reinforcement; tolerance; withdrawal
 A combination of factors is involved in the
development of addiction





Personality
Lifestyle
Heredity
Social and physical environment
Nature of the substance or behavior in question
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Characteristics of People with
Addictions
 Use of a substance or activity as a substitution for
healthier coping strategies
 Genetic predisposition
 Distinct preference for a particular addictive
behavior
 Problems with impulse control and self-regulation
 Tend to be risk takers
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Psychoactive Drugs and Their Potential for
Substance Disorder and Addiction
 Very high
 Amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, heroin, and other opiates
 High
 Caffeine, PCP
 Moderate
 Alcohol, marijuana, benzodiazepines
 Low
 Psychedelics, steroids
 Very low
 Antidepressant, antimanic, and antipsychotic medications
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Risk Factors for Misuse and
Addiction
 Physical factors
 Brain chemistry; metabolism
 Psychological factors
 Mental disorders
 Social factors
 Family; peers; poverty
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Other Risks of Drug
Misuse
 Intoxication
 Unexpected side effects
 Unknown drug constituents
 Risks associated with injection use
 HIV and HCV
 Legal consequences
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How Drugs Affect the
Body (1)
 Changes in brain chemistry
 Effect on neurotransmitters
 Factors that influence a drug’s effect





Pharmacological properties
Dose-response function
Time-action function
Person’s drug use history
Method of drug use
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How Drugs Affect the
Body (2)
 Physical factors
 Body mass
 General health and genetics
 Interactions between drugs
 Psychological factors
 Expectations
 Placebo effect
 Social factors
 Setting
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Representative Psychoactive
Drugs
 Opioids
 Central nervous system depressants
 Central nervous system stimulants
 Marijuana and other cannabis products
 Hallucinogens
 Inhalants
 Prescription drugs
 Synthetic recreational drugs
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Opioids (1)
 Natural or synthetic drugs that relieve pain, cause
drowsiness, and induce euphoria
 At prescribed doses, beneficial
medical uses
 Can still lead to misuse and addiction
 Tolerance can develop rapidly
 Withdrawal symptoms include
cramps, sweating, nausea, tremors,
irritability, and feelings of panic
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Opiods (2)
Representative
Drugs
Street names
Appearance
Methods of use
Heroin
Dope, H, junk, brown
sugar, smack
White/dark brown
powder; dark tar or
coal-like substance
Injected,
smoked, snorted
Opium
Big O, black stuff,
hop
Dark brown or black
Chunks
Swallowed,
Smoked
Morphine
M, Miss Emma,
monkey, white stuff
White crystals,
liquid solution
Injected,
swallowed, smoked
Oxycodone, codeine,
hydrocodone
Oxy, O.C., killer,
Captain Cody,
schoolboy, vike
Tablets, powder
made from
crushing tablets
Swallowed,
injected, snorted
Short Term Effects of Opiods: Relief of anxiety and pain;
euphoria; lethargy, apathy, drowsiness, confusion, inability to
concentrate; nausea, constipation, respiratory depression
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Central Nervous System
Depressants (1)
 Types: barbiturates, sedatives, tranquilizers
 Effects: reduced anxiety, change in mood, impaired
muscular coordination, slurring of speech, drowsiness,
sleep, impaired mental functioning
 Medical uses: to treat insomnia and anxiety disorders,
and to control seizures
 From use to misuse
 Tolerance and withdrawal
 Overdose: slowing and stopping of respiration
 Club drugs: Rohypnol, GHB
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Central Nervous System Depressants
(2)
Representative
Drugs
Street names
Appearance
Methods of use
Barbiturates
Barbs, reds, red birds,
yellows, yellow
jackets
Colored capsules
Swallowed, injected
Benzodiazepines
(e.g., Valium, Xanax,
Rohypnol)
Candy, downers,
tranks, roofies,
forget-me pill
Tablets
Swallowed, injected
Methaqualone
Ludes, quad, quay
Tablets
Injected, swallowed
Gamma hydroxy
butyrate (GHB)
G, Georgia home boy,
grievous bodily harm
Clear liquid,
white powder
Swallowed
Short Term Effects of Central Nervous System Depressants:
Reduced anxiety, mood changes, lowered inhibitions, impaired
muscle coordination, reduced pulse rate, drowsiness, loss of
consciousness, respiratory depression
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Central Nervous System
Stimulants (1)
 Speed up activity of nervous or muscular system
 Cocaine
 Produces feelings of euphoria
 Snorted or used intravenously; crack
 Intense but short-lived effects
 Euphoria replaced by irritability, anxiety, slight depression

“Crash”
 Other effects




Sudden death from excessive CNS stimulation
Persistent nose bleeds
Paranoia and aggression
Serious effects on developing fetus
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Central Nervous System
Stimulants (2)
 Amphetamines
 Potent, synthetic CNS stimulants
 Small doses make people feel more alert
 Sometimes used to curb appetite
 Misuse and addiction
 Often starts as an attempt to cope with a temporary
situation
 State dependence
 Tolerance leads to increased
doses and psychosis
 Methamphetamine is more
addictive than others
 Severe risks to fetus
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Central Nervous System
Stimulants (3)
 Ritalin (methylphenidate) (used to treat ADHD)
 Caffeine
 Most popular psychoactive drug
 Rarely harmful, but withdrawal symptoms can develop
 Energy “shots”
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Central Nervous System Stimulants (4)
Representative
Drugs
Street names
Appearance
Methods of use
Amphetamine,
methamphetamine
Bennies, speed, black
beauties, uppers,
chalk, crank, crystal,
ice, meth
Tablets, capsules,
white powder, clear
crystals
Injected, swallowed,
smoked, snorted
Cocaine, crack
cocaine
Blow, C, candy, coke,
flake, rock, toot,
snow
White powder, beige
pellets or rocks
Injected, smoked,
snorted
Ritalin
JIF, MPH, R-ball,
Skippy
Tablets
Injected, swallowed,
snorted
Short Term Effects of Central Nervous System Stimulants:
Increased and irregular heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism;
increased mental alertness and energy; nervousness, insomnia,
impulsive behavior; reduced appetite
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Marijuana and Other Cannabis Products
(1)
 Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the
United States
 THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient;
potency has increased
 Short-term effects and uses are influenced by the dose
 Long-term effects




Respiratory damage
Learning, attention, memory problems
Decreased testosterone levels
Impaired fetal growth and development
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Marijuana and Other Cannabis Products
(2)
Representative
Drugs
Street names
Appearance
Methods of use
Marijuana
Dope, grass, joints,
Mary Jane, reefer,
skunk, weed, pot
Dried leaves and
stems
Smoked, swallowed
Hashish (most potent
material from
cannabis plants)
Hash, hemp, boom,
gangster
Dark, resin-like
compound formed
into rocks or blocks
Smoked, swallowed
Short Term Effects of Marijuana and Other Cannabis Products:
Euphoria, slowed thinking and reaction time, confusion, anxiety,
impaired balance and coordination, increased heart rate
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Hallucinogens (1)
 Drugs that alter the user’s perceptions, feelings,
and thoughts
 LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)
 Synesthesia
 Stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to
automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or
cognitive pathway
 Altered state of consciousness
 Flashbacks
 MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine)
 Variants: ecstasy, molly
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Hallucinogens (2)
 Other hallucinogens:
 DMT (Dimethyltryptamine)
 Ketamine
 STP (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine)
 “Serenity, Tranquility and Peace”
 PCP (Phencyclidine)
 Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine)
 Naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid
 Peyote Cactus
 Mushrooms
 Botanical products
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Hallucinogens
(3)
Representative
Drugs
Street names
Appearance
Methods of use
LSD
Acid, boomers,
blotter, yellow
sunshines
Blotter paper, liquid,
gelatin tabs, pills
Swallowed,
absorbed through
mouth tissues
Mescaline
(peyote)
Buttons, cactus, mesc
Brown buttons,
liquid
Swallowed, smoked
Psilocybin
Shrooms, magic
mushrooms
Dried mushrooms
Swallowed
Ketamine
K, special K, cat
valium, vitamin K
Clear liquid, white
or beige powder
Injected, snorted,
smoked
PCP
Angel dust, hog,
love boat, peace pill
White to brown
powder, tablets
Injected, swallowed,
smoked, snorted
MDMA (ecstasy)
X, peace, clarity,
Adam, Molly
Tablets
Swallowed
Short Term Effects of Hallucinogens: Altered states of perception
and feeling; nausea; increased heart rate, blood pressure; delirium;
impaired motor function; numbness, weakness
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Inhalants (1)
 Slow down body functions
 Types:




Volatile solvents
Aerosols
Nitrites
Anesthetics
 Use is high among youth and declines with age
 Difficult to control because they are easy to obtain
 Suffocation is among the many risks
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Inhalants (2)
Representative
Drugs
Street names
Appearance
Methods of use
Solvents, aerosols,
nitrites, anesthetics
Laughing gas,
poppers, snappers,
whippets
Household products,
sprays, glues, paint
thinner, petroleum
products
Inhaled through
nose or mouth
Short Term Effects of Inhalants: Stimulation, loss of inhibition,
slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, loss of consciousness
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Prescription Drug Misuse
 Use of medication without a prescription in a way
other than as prescribed, or for the experience or
feelings elicited
 Misuse has increased
 Abused at a rate behind only marijuana and alcohol
 Adderall (treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) and narcolepsy)
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Synthetic Recreational
Drugs
 “Designer drugs”
 Chemically distinct—so either legal or impossible to
detect on drug screenings
 Two main groups
 Synthetic marijuana (“herbal incense”)
 Produces effects similar to THC
 Bath salts
 Produces severe effects
 From violent behavior to chest pain
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Treatment for Drug
Addiction
 Medication-assisted treatment
 Treatment centers
 Groups and peer counseling
 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA); Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
 Harm-reduction strategies
 Minimize the effects of drug use and misuse
 Using a designated driver
 Methadone
 Syringe exchange
 Codependency
 Enabling behaviors
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