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SPANISH COLONIZATION DISCOVERY OF AMERICA INTRODUCTION • Since the very beginning, humanity has felt the necessity of organize all significant the events (as affecting a nation or institution) according to in the order in which they occur. That’s the main definition and task of history. • With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. • Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elite's power with the help of local groups who did not favor the Aztec elite, and Francisco Pizarro eliminated the Incan rule in Western South America. • The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world, was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493, which gave Spain all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). SPANISH COLONIZATION You will learn that… • After the discovery and the conquest of America, Spanish began the exploration and colonization of our continent. The colonization last more than 300 years. • This period was organized in the following way: – The society: classification of people according to the race and economic power. – In the government: Appeared the figure of viceroyalty in which the Viceroy was representative of the Monarch. – The economy: Commercial monopoly that generated the piracy. COLONIAL ORGANIZATION • The arrival of Europeans in the New World in 1492 changed the Americas forever. Over the course of the next 350 years, Spain ruled a vast empire based on the labor and exploitation of the Indian population. Conquistadors descended on America with hopes of bringing Catholicism to new lands while extracting great riches. Land Division When a new territory was discovered and conquered by Spaniards, they claimed and occupied their lands in the name of the King, for this reason he was in charge of land distribution between conquers and settlers. This distribution of the lands was made thought different laws that were modified according to the circumstances, mainly in three periods: • 1492 - 1591: During this period, the king rewarded the conquers and settlers with long extensions of land. • 1591 - 1680: during this period, the crown offered the lands with out owners in a very low price, that way they could attract new settlers. Indian Reservations were created during this time. • 1680 – 1810: Laws of Indies or “Código de Indias” was created During this period. The Laws of the Indies consisted of many regulations about land property. What kind of people were the original Spanish settlers? Spanish settlers, were primarily poor nobles from the impoverished west and south of Spain and poor soldiers with noble titles obtained during the war against the Moorish (they had the titles of hidalgos and knights) who came to America with hopes of finding riches. They built the aristocracy of the new cities, and also Governors, mayors and all the kingdom staff were appointed between them. What happened with the Native Americans during the colony? • Native Americans who survive to the conquer wars were reduced to a condition of virtual slavery and were forced to work in European plantations and mines. However, some priest like Dominican Juan Bartolomé de las Casas worked to avoid their maltreatment arguing that Americans were being doted with souls, as all other human beings. • Then, new laws were created to protect them. Finally, most of the American Indians of our country were subjugated by the Spaniards working as servants. Social Organization • During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex caste-system based on race, which was used for social control and which also determined a person's importance in society. Social Organization Spaniards (Españoles): These were persons of Spanish descent. People of other European descent who had settled in Spanish America and adapted to Hispanic culture Criollos or Crioles : (Españoles criollos or Españoles americanos): People of Spanish ancestry (People who have a direct lineage from Spain but were born in the Americas. Mestizos:Persons with one Spanish parent and one Indian parent. Mulatto: Persons of the first generation of Spanish and Black mix zambos: Persons who were of mixed Indian and Black ancestry Blacks (Negros): With Spaniards and Indians, this was the third original "race" in this paradigm, but low on the social scale because of their association with slavery. Indians (Indios): The second of the original "races" in Spanish America, the law treated them as minors, and as such were to be protected by royal officials, but in reality were often abused by the local elites.