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Why the Academic Study of
Religion?
► It’s
relevant to the Social Studies
► Human Understanding
 Deepen our understanding of others and
ourselves – what is common and what is unique
► Cultural
Influence
 Shape, sustain, transform cultures
 Commonality instead of differences
► Global
Insight
 Building bridges and foster positive human
interaction
Website
United States
Protestant 51.3%
Roman Catholic 23.9%
Mormon 1.7%
other Christian 1.6%
Jewish 1.7%
Buddhist 0.7%
Muslim 0.6%
other or unspecified 2.5%
unaffiliated 12.1%
none 4% (2007 est.)
Judaism
1. Judaism differs from nearby
people
► Cultural
Identification and religion
►cultural identification – Descended from Jews
(Family descent and ethnicity – think of food,
language, traditions)
► Hebrews
were monotheistic
 rejected polytheism.
►Yahweh: creator and ruler of the universe
► Movements
(Sects): Reform, Conservative,
and Orthodox
2. Father of the Jewish people?
► Abraham:
1900 BC
► God made a covenant (agreement) with him
to keep God’s laws
►a special land and relationship if they kept His
law.
►Covenant renewed with Moses with the
10 Commandments
3. What are Jewish laws called?
Purpose of the laws?
► Ten
Commandments
 Standard of conduct: religious and ethical laws
 Guides people’s relationship with God and other
people
4. What land was promised to the
Jews?
► Often
conquered by other more powerful
civilizations, the kingdom of Judah lasted
until 70 CE.
 In 70 CE the Romans destroyed the kingdoms
for good after the Jewish-Roman Wars.
► Palestine
 Ancient Canaan
 Parts in present day Israel
5. Remaining wall of the Temple?
Why is it important?
► Western
Wall or Wailing wall
► Remaining wall of King Solomon's temple
 Destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.
 Place of pilgrimage - Jerusalem
Temple Mount
6. What is Jewish Diaspora?
► Scattering
of the Jews throughout the world
► Spread of culture and religion
Diaspora
►
►
►
►
The Jews were dispersed
throughout the Roman empire,
living as small communities and
trying to keep their culture.
Diaspora: The dispersion of a
culture throughout the world.
They began to marry into and
speak the languages of the
culture around them, while
maintaining a separate culture.
Today there are Jews of every
race speaking many languages.
Diaspora
•
•
•
By the 1st century B.C., the Jews living in Israel came
under the control of Rome. Region was known as Judaea
In 70 A.D., the Jews revolted against Roman rule. The
Temple was destroyed again, and the Jews were again
forced into exile
As further punishment, the Romans renamed the area
Palestine
Zionism
► Late
1800s: Zionism - European Jewish
leaders call for the creation of a Jewish
nation-state.
7. What is Torah? Why is it
important?
► Hebrew
bible
► Early history, moral and religious laws
► Sacred text
► Old Testament: first five books of the bible
8. Define prophet. Who is the most
important prophet
► Person
who speaks or acts on behalf of
God/religious teacher
► Moses
9. Identify & describe the basic
beliefs and traditions of Judaism
► One
god
► Live according to God’s laws
► Study the Torah
► Ethical world view
► Dietary laws
► Sabbath – day of rest – Saturday
► Movements: Orthodox, Conservative,
Reform
10. What are the Jewish beliefs of the
Messiah? Has the Messiah arrived?
► Messiah:
► No
savior; one anointed by God
Christianity
As of 2010, there were 2.18 billion
Christians in the world
1. Out of what religion did
Christianity grow?
► Judaism
 Became a separate identity
► Most
followed faith in the world
► Many Denominations (Sects):
►Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant
2. Christian beliefs about Jesus
compared to other religions?
►
►
Jesus is considered to be the Messiah and son of God
Those who followed Jesus believed that he was the
Messiah.
 Messiah – one anointed or savior
 Christ is the Greek word for Messiah.
►
Jesus was sent to reconcile/rebuild the relationship
between humanity and God
3. How is the Bible divided? Name
the parts.
► Old
and New Testament
► Before Jesus and after Jesus
► Old Testament-Torah
► New Testament- Gospels – an account of
the life of Jesus
4. What is the purpose of the
Apostles’ Creed?
► Statement
of Christian’s beliefs
 Creed: any set of beliefs or principles
Crucifixion
Christians came to
believe that the Christ
was also God’s son.
► The Romans began to
refer to the followers of
Jesus as Christians.
► Jesus was executed by
the Romans for leading
a rebellion against their
rule.
►
 His death by crucifixion
became a major symbol
of the Christian faith.
5. What is the importance of the
resurrection and ascension of Jesus?
► Basis
for Christian beliefs about Jesus
► Jesus’ followers believed that he was
brought back to life by God and taken to
heaven.
 They believe that he will one day return.
believe in the Trinity: The
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one god.
► Christians
6. Why were the Christians
persecuted?
► Did
not show respect for Roman Gods
►At first Christianity was outlawed by the
Romans.
► Persecution
ended with Roman
Emperor Constantine’s conversion to
Christianity
(313 A.D.)
►Legalized the religion
The Great Schism
► 1054
CE: The Great
Schism occurred
 The split the Christian
church between
Catholicism and
Orthodox faiths.
7. Why did Christianity appeal to
people? Reasons for the spread of
Christianity.
► Offered
hope for all people
 Salvation and eternal life
► Salvation
for good choices-moral choices
► All believers were equal under the eyes of
God
8. Identify the Greek (Eastern)
Orthodox Church.
► Roman
Empire was divided (eastern half
Byzantine Empire) 1054
► Byzantine emperor refused to recognize the
pope as head of Christian Church
► Christian church split into two parts:
 Roman Catholic Church: Rome
 Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Church:
Constantinople
Comparison of Statistics and Basics
Judaism
Christianity
adherents called
Jews
Christians
current adherents
14 million
2 billion
current size rank
12th largest
largest
Israel, Europe, USA
Europe, North and South
America, rapid growth in
Africa
Bible/Torah
Bible (Jewish Bible + New
Testament)
Talmud, Midrash,
Responsa
church fathers, church
councils, papal decrees
(Catholic only)
rabbis
priests, ministers, pastors,
bishops
synagogue
church, chapel, cathedral
Saturday
Sunday
major concentration
sacred text
other written authority
clergy
house of worship
main day of worship
Comparison of Origins and History
Judaism
Christianity
date founded
unknown
c. 33 CE
place founded
Palestine (def)
Palestine
Moses or Abraham
Jesus
Hebrew
Aramaic, Greek
little expansion; mostly
confined to Palestine
within 60 years, churches in
major cities in Palestine, Turkey,
Greece and Rome (map); entire
Roman Empire by end of 4th
cent.
Reform/Orthodox, 1800s
CE
Catholic/Orthodox, 1054 CE;
Catholic/Protestant, 1500s CE
founder
original language(s)
early expansion
major splits
Comparison of Religious Beliefs
Judaism
Christianity
type of theism
strict monotheism
Trinitarian monotheism
ultimate reality
one God
one God
names of God
Yahweh, Elohim
Yahweh, the Holy Trinity
angels and demons
angels and demons
not prophet
Son of God, God incarnate,
savior of the world
death by crucifixion
death by crucifixion
resurrection of Jesus
Not part of beliefs
affirmed
divine revelation
through Prophets,
recorded in Bible
through Prophets and Jesus (as
God Himself), recorded in Bible
means of salvation
belief in God, good
deeds
correct belief, faith, good deeds,
sacraments (some Protestants
emphasize faith alone)
views vary: some
heaven
eternal heaven
other spiritual beings
identity of Jesus
death of Jesus
afterlife
Similarities of Judaism & Christianity
►
►
All religions:
 A way to rejoice and give
thanks
 moral compass
 Give to needy
 Golden rule: “do unto
others”
 Supreme power
C and J:











Monotheism
Old Testament
Prophets
Ten Commandments
Idea Heaven
Belief in the idea of a
Messiah
Jerusalem Holy
Coming of Age
ceremonies
Several
Denominations/moveme
nts
Sacred text
Sabbath (Sat/Sun)