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Differences between Polish and English Osoby mówiące po polsku English as an additional language (EAL) developmental features Courtesy of Hampshire Ethnic Minority Achievement Service General Differences Polish grammar is in some respects more complex than English. For example, Polish noun endings change, depending on the use of the noun in the sentence. When writing, Polish uses capital letters for names of countries and their nationals, but not for the adjective. Like many languages, the English "th" sound does not exist in Polish, and it will often be pronounced as more of a "v" sound. Different letter combinations exist in Polish, in particular using "z" : cz, dz, dź¸, dż, rz, sz. Polish Alphabet There are 32 letters in the Polish alphabet: aąbcćdeęfghijklłmnńoóprsśtuwyzźż Polish children use names when learning their alphabet e.g. A for Adam, B for Barbara etc. The following letters are pronounced roughly the same as in English: bdfgklmnopstz Word Order Word order is generally similar to English. An exception to this is an inversion of the English word order to indicate possession; the Polish would be "dom poety" - the house of the poet, rather than the poet's house. Consonants Consonant letters followed by the letter "i" represent sounds which combine with a y sound like in "yes". Polish "ch" is pronounced like the "ch" in the Scottish "loch". c = English "ch " or "ts" as in "cats" j = "y" sound as in "yes" r = rolled or trilled "r" sound w = "v" ł = normally a sound like English "w" Vowels Vowels in Polish normally have one consistent sound. "Y " is seen as a vowel in Polish, and has a short "i" sound , as in the English word "bid". Vowel combinations do exist in the Polish language a = sounds like the "a" in "father" i = a long "ee" sound as in "keen" o = like the "o" in "box" ó (and u) are both pronounced the same, like the "oo" in "boot", e.g. Bóg(God) and Bug (River Bug) are both pronounced "Boog". Verbs Where English would use the present form of a verb to talk about the future, Polish would use the future. This may be carried over into English for example “When I will be in England , I will come and see you”. Nouns A typical Polish noun is either masculine or feminine, therefore Polish children will refer to nouns as “he” or “she”, rather than “it”. Nouns change their form depending on their use in a sentence, so the word poet, may be poeta, poety, poetą or poecie, . The "y" in "poety" indicates possession, the equivalent of the English apostrophe "s" . Other Words and Grammar Polish omits the article where one would be used in English, e.g.“This is large house” in place of “This is a large house”. Correcting English All people should be encouraged to correct the English which may be easily done by repeating an incorrect phrase in the correct form, but without specifically drawing attention to it as a “mistake”. Mathematics A division sign may be written as : (a colon) e.g. 2:3 (means 2/3) A multiplication sign like a decimal point e.g. 3 ∙ 2 (means 3 x 2). Also, a decimal point may be written as a comma e.g. 3,2 (means 3.2).