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Notes: Ch. 4 sec. 1 Egyptian and Nubian Empires I. Nomadic Invaders (Hyksos) Rule Egypt (Second Intermediate Period) a. period of war / violence descends upon Egypt i. Succession of weak pharaohs ii. Power struggles between rival nobles b. Hyksos take over Egypt 1640 – 1570 B.C.E. i. Invaders cross Isthumus Suez 1. Use War Chariots / compound bows a. Previously unknown to Egyptians ii. Shook Egyptian confidence in protection from dessert barriers iii. Invaders were Resented by Egyptians Powerless to remove invaders c. Israelites migrate to Egypt 1650 B.C.E. i. Descendants of Abraham ii. Remain in Egypt until maybe 15-1200 B.C.E 1. Enslaved, forced into hard labor II. New Kingdom 1570 – 1080 B.C.E a. Series of warlike rulers begin to take Egypt back i. Queen Ahhotep 1. Helps to drive out Hyksos ii. Kamose 1. Won great victory over Hyksos 2. Successors drove them out completely a. Hyksos pursued across Sinai Peninsula to Canaan b. Pharaohs build an Empire i. w/ Chariots and Bronze Weapons become Conquerors!! ii. Army of archers, charioteers, infantry and foot soldiers iii. Capital moved to Thebes 1. Valley of the Kings (royal tombs) a. Pharaoh = “great house” 2. Great Palaces and splendid temples c. Hatshepsut i. Declares herself pharaoh 1472 1. Stepson Thutmose III only a child ii. Encourages trade rather than War 1. 5 ship Trading exp. To Land of Punt 2. Many riches brought back a. Myrre, frankincense, gold, ivory, fragrances d. Thutmose III Empire Builder i. Warlike ruler ii. Murdered Hatshepsut (possibly) Notes: Ch. 4 sec. 1 Egyptian and Nubian Empires 1. Attempt to hide all monuments to her / cover up iii. Led Victory invasions 1. East Syria and Canaan 2. South into Nubia iv. Effect Egypt becomes mighty Empire 1. Controlled all lands around Nile / far beyond 2. Drew boundless wealth from neighboring regions 3. New ideas and material goods gained as contact with others grew e. Hittites and Egypt i. Syrian / Canaan conquests close to Hittites peoples 1. Asia Minor – Anatolia – modern Turkey 2. Battle of Kadesh 1285 B.C.E. a. Ramses II creates 1st internationally recorded peace treaty to ever be recorded i. Lasting alliance between them f. Ramses II 1290 – 1224 B.C.E. i. Great builder of N.Kingdom ii. Karnak Added onto monumental temple to Amon Re 1. Amon Re = Egypt’s chief god iii. Abu Simbel ordered a temple to be carved in cliffs 1. To be decorated with enormous statues of himself (ear=3ft.) III. Decline of Empire a. Strong civilizations arose to challenge Egypt’s power b. Ramses dies c. Mediterranean – wave of invasions i. “Sea Peoples” created great destruction 1. May have included Phillistines ii. From East: Tribes of Canaan rebelled often against Egyptian overlords iii. From West: Libyans raid Egyptian villages 1. Desert no longer a barrier d. Egypt never recovers previous power i. Breaks into regional units / small kingdoms / each independent e. Falls to neighbors’ invasions IV. Libyans rule Egypt 950-730 B.C.E. a. Cross desert into Nile delta b. Establish independent dynasties – Libyan pharaohs i. Rule Egypt / Erect cities c. Adopt Egyptian culture Kingdom of Kush / region of Nubia a. South of Egypt V. Notes: Ch. 4 sec. 1 Egyptian and Nubian Empires b. c. d. e. f. VI. i. Between 1st cataract and Blue / White Nile division several Nubian kingdoms act as trade corridors i. link Egypt to African interior / Red Sea ii. goods flow between for centuries iii. Kerma – first Nubian kingdom to emerge 2000 b.c.e. iv. Emerges as regional power during time of Hyksos Egypt dominates region between 2000 and 1000 b.c.e. i. during revival of N. Kingdom – Egyptian rule forced on Kush 1. Armies raid and occupy Kush for brief period (ThutmoseIII) ii. Napata – Kush capital 1. Becomes center for spread of Egyptian culture to Kush Kush princes / nobles go to Egypt i. Learn Egyptian language, religion, customs Viewed as Guardians of Egyptian values Piankhi 751- 671 b.c.e. i. Kushite king ii. Overthrows Libyan dynasty in Egypt of 200 yrs. in 751 b.c.e. iii. Unties entire Nile Valley 1. Delta (in north) to Napata (in south) iv. Erects monument in homeland of Kush 1. “with glad heart, the shores on his either side were jubilating” Golden Age of Meroe 250 b.c.e. – 150 A.D. (4 centuries) a. Kushite family moves south after Assyrians conquer b. Meroe i. closer to Red Sea than Napata ii. becomes active in flourishing trade 1. Africa, Arabia, India c. Wealth of Kush i. Natural resources provide wealth for hundreds of years 1. Significant rainfall 2. Abundant supplies of iron ore ii. Becomes major manufacturing center 1. Iron weapons / tools iii. Traded mineral wealth from Nile with luxury wealth from India / Arabia 1. Via Red Sea 2. Weapons for cotton, jewelry, lamps, glass d. Decline of Meroe i. Aksum kingdom 1. 400 miles to southeast 2. better access (seaport even) to Red Sea 3. became dominate in North African trade 4. defeats Meroe 350 A.D.