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Anatomy 10A
Unit 3: Muscles
For your practicum, you will need to know the muscle name & action. O = origin; I = insertion
Muscles of head and neck:
Muscles of facial expression:
Wrinkles forehead
Elevates eyebrow
O: epicranial aponeurosis
I: skin of eyebrow & bridge of nose
Corrugator supercilii
Draws eyebrow to midline
O: orbital rim of frontal bone near frontonasal suture
Orbicularis oculi
Closes eye
O: medial margin of orbit
Orbicularis oris
Compresses, purses lips
Compresses cheek
Zygomaticus major
Elevates corner of mouth (smiling)
O: inferior surface of zygomatic bone
I: angle of mouth
Draws corner of mouth laterally
O: fascia around parotid gland
I: angle of mouth
Elevates & protrudes lower lip (pout)
O: incisive fossa of mandible
I: skin of chin
Depresses mandible and tenses neck skin
O: fascia of superior thorax
I: mandible & cheek skin
Muscles of mastication:
Elevates mandible & closes jaw
O: zygomatic arch
I: lateral surface & mandibular ramus angle
Elevates mandible & closes jaw
O: temporal lines of skull
I: coronoid process of mandible
Anterior muscles of the neck:
Rotates head, flexes neck
I: skin around eyelids
O: maxilla & mandible
I: lips
O: lateral alveolar processes of maxilla & mandible
O: sternal end of clavicle & manubrium
I: eyebrow
I: orbic. oris fibers
I: mastoid region & sup. nuchal line
Posterior muscles of the neck:
Extends neck, moves scapula
Suprahyoid muscles:
Opens mouth, elevates hyoid (larynx)
Elevates hyoid and floor of mouth
Opens mouth, elevates hyoid (larynx)
Elevates hyoid (larynx)
O: styloid process of temporal bone
Infrahyoid muscles:
Depresses hyoid (larynx)
O: clavicle & manubrium
Depresses thyroid cartilage (larynx)
O: manubrium & 1st costal cartilage
Depresses hyoid bone, elevates larynx
O: thyroid cartilage
*O: occipital bone & ligamentum nuchae
*I: acromion & scapular spine
O: posterior chin & mastoid of temporal bone
O: medial mandible
I: hyoid
I: median CT band (raphe) to hyoid
O: posterior chin
I: hyoid
I: hyoid
I: hyoid
I: thyroid cartilage
I: hyoid
Muscles of the body wall:
External intercostals
Elevates ribs (inspiration)
O: inferior border of rib
I: superior border of next lower rib
Internal intercostals
Depresses ribs (expiration)
O: superior border of rib
I: inferior border of next upper rib
Rectus abdominis
Flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen
External oblique
Compresses abdomen, trunk rotation opposite side
Internal oblique
Compresses abdomen, trunk rotation same side
O: thoracolumbar fascia & iliac crest
I: inferior borders ribs 9-12, costal cartilages 8-10, linea alba, pubis
O: superior pubis
I: inferior rib cartilages & xiphoid
O: inferior borders ribs 5-12 I: linea alba & iliac crest
Transversus abdominis
Compresses abdomen
O: cartilages of ribs 6-12, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
I: linea alba, pubis
Muscles of posterior thorax:
Serratus anterior
Protacts shoulder, rotates scapula up O: anterior borders of ribs 1-8
Levator scapulae
Elevates scapula
Rhomboideus major
Adducts & rotates scapula down
O: spinous processes of T1-T6
I: mid & lower vertebral border
Rhomboideus minor
Adducts & rotates scapula down
O: spinous processes of C7-T1
I: mid vertebral border of scapula
O: transverse processes of C1-C4
I: anterior vertebral border of scapula
I: superior vertebral border of scapula
Elevates, retracts, depresses or rotates scapula up O: spinous processes of T1-T12 I: acromion & scap. spine
(adding to listing in posterior neck)
Muscles that move the arm:
Pectoralis major
Flexes, adducts, and rotates shoulder medially
O: cart. of ribs 2-6, sternum, inferior & medial clavicle
I: greater tubercle & intertubercular groove
Pectoralis minor
Depresses and protracts scapula
Abducts shoulder
Latissimus dorsi
Extends, adducts, and rotates shoulder medially
Teres major
Extends and rotates shoulder medially
O: inferior angle of scapula
I: intertubercular groove
Teres minor
Adducts and rotates shoulder laterally
O: lateral border of scapula
I: greater tubercle of humerus
O: anterior ribs 3-5
I: coracoid process of scapula
O: clavicle & acromion & spine of scapula I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
O: spinous processes of lower T, all L, sacrum, ribs 8-12,
and thoracolumbar fascia
I: intertubercular groove
Muscles that move the forearm:
Biceps brachii
Flexes elbow & shoulder
O: coracoid process, supraglenoid tubercle (scapula)
I: radial tuberosity
Flexes elbow
O: distal ½ of anterior humerus
Flexes elbow
O: ridge superior to lateral epicondyle of humerus I: lateral styloid process of radius
Pronator teres
Pronates forearm & flexes elbow
Supinates forearm
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus & ridge near radial notch of ulna
I: anterolateral surface of radius distal to radial tuberosity
Triceps brachii
Extends elbow
O: superior, lateral margin of humerus, infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, posterior
I: olecranon of ulna
I: ulnar tuberosity & coronoid process
O: medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna
I: middle of lateral surface of radius
Muscles that move the hand/fingers:
I: bases of 2nd & 3rd metacarpals
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexes and abducts wrist
O: medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexes and adducts wrist
O: medial epicondyle of humerus, adjacent medial olecranon & anteromed. ulna
I: pisiform, hamate, and base of 5th metacarpal
Palmaris longus
Flexes wrist
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extends and abducts wrist
O: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extends and adducts wrist
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus, adjacent dorsal surface of ulna
I: base of 5th metacarpal
Extensor digitorum
Extends wrist and digits
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
O: medial epicondyle of humerus
I: palmar aponeurosis & flexor retinaculum
I: base of 2nd metacarpal
I: posterior surfaces of phalanges 2-5
Muscles that move the thigh:
Gluteus maximus
Extends and rotates hip laterally
O: iliac crest, posterior gluteal line, lateral ilium, sacrum, coccyx, and
Thoracolumbar fascia
I: iliotibial tract & gluteal tuberosity femur
Gluteus medius
Abducts and rotates hip medially
O: anterior iliac crest, lateral ilium
Gluteus minimus
Abducts and rotates hip medially
O: lateral ilium
Tensor fasciae latae
Abducts and rotates hip medially, extends & laterally rotates knee, tenses fasciae latae
O: iliac crest & lateral anterior superior iliac spine I: iliotibial tract
I: greater trochanter of femur
I: greater trochanter of femur
Adductor longus
Flexes, adducts, and rotates hip medially
Adductor brevis
Flexes and adducts hip
Adductor magnus
Adducts, flexes and rotates hip medially (anterior), extension of hip (posterior)
O: inferior ramus & ischial tuberosity
I: linea aspera & adductor tubercle femur
O: inferior ramus of pubis
O: inferior ramus of pubis
I: linea aspera of femur
I: linea aspera of femur
Muscles that move the leg:
Knee Flexors =”Hamstrings”:
Flexes & medial rotates knee, adducts & medially rotates hip
Flexes knee and hip, abducts and rotates hip laterally
Biceps femoris
Flexes knee, extends and laterally rotates hip
O: ischial tuberosity, linea aspera
I: head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia
Flexes knee, extends and medially rotates hip
O: ischial tuberosity I: posterior medial condyle of tibia
O: inferior ramus of pubis
I: medial tibial inferior to medial condyle
O: anterior superior iliac spine
I: medial tibia near tuberosity
Flexes knee, extends and medially rotates hip
O: ischial tuberosity I: proximal, medial tibia
Knee Extensors = “Quadriceps”:
Rectus femoris
Extends knee and flexes hip
Vastus medialis
Extends knee
O: linea aspera
Vastus lateralis
Extends knee
O: anterior & inferior to greater trochanter & linea aspera (proximal ½ )
Vastus intermedius
Extends knee
O: anterolateral femur & linea aspera (distal ½)
O: anterior inferior iliac spine & superior acetabular rim
I: tibial tuberosity, patella, and patellar ligament
I: same
I: same
I: same
Muscles that move the foot/toes:
Muscles that move the foot:
Plantar flexes ankle, flexes knee
Planter flexes ankle
Peroneus (fibularis) longus
Planter flexes ankle and everts foot
O: head & prox. shaft fibula
Peroneus (fibularis) brevis
Plantar flexes ankle and everts foot
O: midlateral fibula
Peroneus tertius
Dorsiflexes and everts foot
Tibialis anterior
Dorsiflexes ankle, inverts foot
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexes toes 2-5, plantar flexes ankle O: posteromedial tibia
Extensor digitorum longus
Extends toes 2-5, dorsiflexes ankle
O: femoral condyles
I: calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
O: head & prox. shaft fibula and adjacent posteromedial shaft tibia
I: base of 1st metatarsal & cuneiform 1
I: base of 5th metatarsal
O: lateral condyle & prox. shaft tibia
I: base of 1st metatarsal & cuneiform I
I: inferior distal phalanges 2-5
O: lateral condyle tibia, anterior fibula
I: same
I: superior phalanges 2-5
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