Download introduction of processor

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
 The development of each new processor, the processor design gets
more and more complex. Because of the processor packaging also
changes to make room for additional features and working
 The processors have undergone several changes from its
introduction with Intel 4004 processor to modern day high-speed Intel
core 2 duo processor. Each new processor has brought to improved
performance and introduced new technology.
 But whatever be the processor, there are some basic factors that are
primarily used to judge the performance and capability of a CPU
design :
 Clock speed: Higher the clock speed, the faster will a
processor executes an instruction.
 Number of transistor: More the number of transistors, the
faster will be the processing power.
 Registers: larger the size of the register, more instruction can
be executed in a single step.
 External data bus: Larger the data bus size, more data can
be transferred between the processor and other components.
As a result, the processor can execute instruction on a large
amount of data which in turn will reduce the number of
execution. This improves the processor performance.
 Internal cache: More the cache memory capacity, faster will
be the processor speed. But cache are expensive memory,
hence the best approach is to effectively use the existing
cache capacity to give better processor performance.
 With the quick development in above areas results in developments
of faster and faster processor in lesser and lesser time period.
 INTEL 4004 PROCESSOR: The first processor introduced in the market was by Intel by the name
Intel 4004 processor.
 It consists of two basic components that are still used in modern day
processors, ALU and CU.
 Intel 4004 processor has a proposed clock speed of 108 kHz.
 Intel 4004 was finally launched in the market, its speed was
increased to 740 kHz and it has 2250 transistors.
(Intel 4004 processor)
 It processed data 4 bits at a time, but its instructions were 8 bits long.
 It has sixteen 4-bit or eight 8-bit general purpose registers , and an
instruction set containing 45 instruction.
 It is packaged using DIP packaging and has 16 pins.
 It could execute approximately 0.06 million instructions per second
 Intel 4004 processor was originally designed for the Japanese
company Busicom to be used in their line of calculators.
 INTEL 8008 PROCESSOR: The next development in processor is the introduction of first 8-bit
processor by Intel called Intel 8008 processor in the year 1972.
 It is a clock speed in the range of 0.5 MHz to 0.8 MHz
 It consists of 3500 transistor.
 It produced data 8 bits at a time.
(Intel 8008 processor)
 It Instruction set consists of 48 instruction.
 It packaged using DIP and has 18 pins.
 It could execute approximately 0.05 MIPS.
 Intel 8008 processor was typically used in general calculators and
bottling machines.
 INTEL 8080 PROCESSOR: The next processor introduced by Intel was Intel 8080 processor. It
was introduced in 1974 and was actually an improvisation of Intel
8008 processor.
 It has a clock speed, also called the processor speed or CPU speed,
of 2 MHz.
 It consists of 6000 transistor.
 It use data bus width of 8 bits but use an address bus width of 16 bits.
(Intel 8080 processor)
 It instruction set consists of same number of instruction as in Intel
8008 processor that is 48 instruction.
 It is packaged using DIP and has 40 pins.
 It could execute approximately 0.64 MIPS.
 Intel 8080 processor was developed to use in Altair 8800
microcomputer and traffic light controller.
 INTEL 8086 PROCESSOR: The next development in processor technology is the introduction of
Intel 8086 processor. It is a 16-bit processor introduced in the year
 It has a CPU speed of 4.77 MHz to 10 MHz.
 It consists of 29,000 transistors.
 It uses a data bus width of 16 bits but uses an address bus width of
20 bits.
 It is first Intel processor to base on CISC instruction set.
 It is packaged using DIP and has 40 pins.
 It operated 0.33 MIPS at 4 MHz, 0.66 MIPS at 8 MHz, and 0.75 MIPS
at 10 MHz.
 Intel 8086 processor is used in microcomputer like the Micron 2000
and dedicated word processing machine like the IBM DisplayWrite.
 INTEL 8088 PROCESSOR: Intel 8088 microprocessor was released in 1979, or one year
after the Intel 8086 CPU.
 Both processors have the same architecture, and the only
difference of the 8088 CPU from the 8086 is the external
data bus width - it was reduced from 16 bits to 8 bits.
 The 8088 CPU uses two consecutive bus cycles to read or
write 16 bit data instead of one bus cycle for the 8086,
which makes the 8088 processor to run slower.
 The plus side hardware changes to the 8088 CPU made it
compatible with 8080/8085 support chips.
 This was an important factor in choosing the 8088 processor
for IBM PC line of computers because at that time 8-bit
support chips were cheaper than 16-bit support chips, and
there was better selection of 8-bit chips.
 INTEL 80286 PROCESSOR: The next processor that is developed for PCs is Intel 80286
processor, more popularly known as Intel 286 processor.
 It has an initial CPU speed of 6 MHz and 8MHz, But it was later
increased to 12.5 MHz which was further increased to 20 MHz and 25
 It is an x86 16-bit microprocessor with 1, 34,000 transistors.
 It uses a data bus width of 16 bits.
 It consists of 68 pins.
 It operated 0.9 MIPS at 6 MHz, 1.5 MIPS at 8 MHz and 10 MHz, 2.66
MIPS at 12.5 MHz.
 It processing speed is 3 to 6 times faster than the Intel 8086
processor. This means that using a PC with Intel 286 processor, you
can scan a large book like Mahabharata or Ramayana having more
than thousands of pages in less than a minute.
 INTEL 80386DX PROCESSOR: The Intel 80386, also known as the i386, or just 386, was a 32-bit
microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1985.
 The first versions had 275,000 transistors and were used as the
central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computer sand
 As the original implementation of the 32-bit extensions to the 8086
architecture, the 80386 instruction set, programming model, and
binary encodings are still the common denominator for all 32-bit x86
 This is termed x86, IA-34 or the i386-architecture, depending on
 it has a CPU speed of 16 MHz to 40 MHz
 It packaged using PGA and has 132 pins.
 It operated 5-6 MIPS at 16 MHz, 6-7 MIPS at 20 MHz, 8.5 MIPS at 25
MHz and 11.4 MIPS at 33 MHz
 It supports both the operating modes, real mode and protected mode.
 Real mode: this mode is used to run older software that are
designed for the Intel 8086 processors.
 Protected modes: the processor has mechanism to handle
erroneous situation like illegal memory access and illegal
instruction execution.
 INTEL 80386SX PROCESSOR: A lower-speed version of the Intel 80386.
 It uses a 16-bit data bus instead of a 32-bit data bu.
 It has a 24-bit address bus.
 It is faster than the 286, and more importantly, like the full-size 386,
provides more flexibility in running existing DOS applications.
 Intel's version runs at 16 MHz, while AMD's can run at up to 33 MHz.
 It comes in a PFP package.
Intel 80486 family processor: Intel 80486DX processor: It was launched in the year 1989.
 It has a CPU speed of 25 MHz to 50 MHz.
 It consists of 1.2 million transistors.
 It uses both data bus and address bus of width of 32 bits.
 It is the first processor to include level 1 cache.
 It is first Intel processor to support pipelining.
(Intel 80486DX processor)
 It is used both in the and the server.
 Intel 80486SX processor: It was introduced by Intel in the year 1979 and was targeted to
develop cheaper Intel 486-based systems.
 Has a CPU speed in the range 16-33 MHz
 Which are approximately 1.18 million transistors.
 It used only in low cost PCs.
 Does not have any floating point unit.
(80486 SX processor)
 Intel 80486DX 2 processor: The Intel 80486DX2 is a CPU produced by Intel that was
introduced in 1992.
 The i486DX2 was nearly identical to the i486DX but for the
addition of clock multiplier circuitry.
 It was the first chip to use clock doubling, whereby the processor
runs two internal logic clock cycles per external bus cycle.
 An i486 DX2 was thus significantly faster than an i486 DX at the
same bus speed thanks to the 8K on-chip cache shadowing the
slower clocked external bus.
(80486DX2 processor)
 Intel 80486DX4 processor:-
 Intel produced IntelDX4s with two clock speed stepping: A 75
MHz version and a 100 MHz version.
 Both chips were released on March 1994.
 A version of the IntelDX4 featuring write-back cache was
released in October 1994.
 The original write-through versions of the chip are marked with a
laser embossed "&E", while the write-back enabled versions are
marked "&EW". I486 Overdrive editions of the IntelDX4 had
locked multipliers, and therefore can only run at 3× the external
 The 100 MHz model of the processor had an comp rating of 435,
whilst the 75 MHz processor had a rating of 319. The IntelDX4
was an OEM-only product, but the DX4 Overdrive could be
purchased at a retail store.
(80486DX4 processor)
 AMD 5x86 processor: The year it was launched in 1995.
 It consists of 2 million transistors.
 It uses both data bus and address bus of width of 32 bits.
 It includes the support for the level 1 cache.
 It supports pipelining up to five stages.
 It includes the floating point unit integrated in the processor.
(AMD 5x86 processor)
 Cyrix 5x86 processor: Cx5x86 filled a gap by providing a medium-performance
processor option for 486 Socket 3 motherboards.
 Released in August 1995, four months before the more famous
Cyrix 6x86, the Cyrix 5x86 was one of the fastest CPUs ever
produced for Socket 3 computer systems.
 With better performance in most applications than an Intel
Pentium processor at 75 MHz, the Cyrix.
 IDX4WB pin out, 168 pins.
 Socket 3.
 2.0 million Transistors on 0.65 micrometer process.
 144mm² die.
 3.45 volts electricity usage.
 16 kibibytes unified level-one cache.
(Cyrix 5x86 processor)
 Intel Pentium processor: The Pentium processor was introduced by Intel in the year
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 60 MHz to 200 MHz
 3.1 million Transistor for Intel Pentium 60 MHz processor.
 3.2 million Transistor for Intel Pentium 75 to 120 MHz
 3.3 million Transistor for Intel Pentium 133,166,200 MHz
(Intel Pentium processor)
 It operated at over 100 MIPS. But the 75 MHz model runs at
126.5 MIPS.
 It too supports pipelining up to five stages.
 It is the first Intel processor to have branch prediction unit.
 AMD K5 processor: Introduced in March 1996, its primary competition was Intel's
Pentium microprocessor. Although it was originally scheduled
for launch in 1995, it was delayed until 1996 because of
design issues.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 75 MHz to 133 MHz.
 It consists of 4.3 million transistors.
 It internal architecture is based on RISC instruction set.
 It has an integrated floating point unit and branch prediction
 It like Intel Pentium processor supports pipelining of five
(AMD K5 processor)
 Cyrix 6x86 processor: It has manufactured by IBM and SGS-Thomason and was
launched in the year 1996.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 75 MHz to 133 MHz
 It consists of 3 million transistors.
 It uses a combination of both CISC and RISC based
instruction sets.
 It also uses address bus of width of 32 bits and data bus
width of 64 bits.
 It like AMD K5 supports register renaming feature.
 It supports all the tree operating modes , real mode ,
protected mode , and VM86 mode.
 It has packaged using SPGA having 296 pins to insert into
socket 7.
 It has a superior branch prediction unit.
(Cyrix 6x86 processor)
 Intel Pentium MMX processor:-
 It was launched by Intel in the year 1997.
 It has a CPU speed of 166 , 200 and 233 MHz
 It consists of 4.5 million transistors.
 It also uses address bus of width of 32 bits and data bus width
of 64 bits.
 It supports all the tree operating modes, real mode, protected
mode and VM86 mode.
(Intel Pentium MMX processor)
 It uses split level 1 cache with both instruction and data cache
of size 16 kb each.
 Intel Pentium pro processor:-
 The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor
developed and manufactured by Intel introduced in November
 It introduced the P6 micro architecture and was originally
intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of
 While the Pentium and Pentium MMX had 3.1 and 4.5 million
transistors, respectively, the Pentium Pro contained 5.5 million
 It was reduced to a narrower role as a server and high-end
desktop processor and was used in supercomputers like ASCI
Red. The Pentium Pro was capable of both dual- and quadprocessor configurations.
 It only came in one form factor, the relatively large rectangular
Socket 8. The Pentium Pro was succeeded by the Pentium II
Xeon in 1998.
 It has a CPU speed of 150, 166, 188, and 200 MHz.
 It consists of 5.5 million transistors.
(Pentium pro processor)
 Intel Pentium II processor:-
 The Pentium II brand refers to Intel's sixth-generation micro
architecture and x86-compatible microprocessors introduced on
May 7, 1997.
 Containing 7.5 million transistors, the Pentium II featured an
improved version of the first P6-generation core of the Pentium
Pro, which contained 5.5 million transistors.
 However, its L2 cache subsystem was a downgrade when
compared to Pentium Pro's. In early 1999, the Pentium II was
superseded by the Pentium III.
 It core comes in two forms, Klamath and Deschutes.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 233 MHz to 450 MHz.
 It implements MMX instruction sets integrated in the processor.
(Pentium II processor)
 Intel Celeron processors: The Celeron processor was launched by Intel in the year 1998.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 266 MHz to 3.60 GHz.
 It use the same core processor has its corresponding Pentium
 The initial Celeron processors do not have any L2 cache at all.
Because of this the initial Celeron processor was very poor in
(Intel Celeron processor)
 AMD K6 processor:-
 The K6 microprocessor was launched by AMD in 1997.
 The main advantage of this particular microprocessor is that it
was designed to fit into existing desktop designs for Pentium
branded CPUs.
 It was marketed as a product which could perform as well as
its Intel Pentium II equivalent but at a significantly lower price.
 The K6 had a considerable impact on the PC market and
presented Intel with serious competition.
 It has CPU speed of 166,200,233, and 266 MHz.
 It has consists of 8.8 million transistors.
 It is a RISC-based processor.
 It also uses address bus of width of 32 bits and data bus width
of 64 bits.
 It is also supports the MMX instruction set.
(AMD K6 processor)
 Intel Pentium III processor:-
 The Pentium III brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and
mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 micro
architecture introduced on February 26, 1999.
 The brand's initial processors were very similar to the earlier
Pentium II-branded microprocessors.
 The most notable difference was the addition of the SSE
instruction set (to accelerate floating point and parallel
calculations), and the introduction of a controversial serial
number embedded in the chip during the manufacturing
 It core comes in three forms, arranged in the order of the year
of their launch, are: katmai, Coppermine, Tualatin.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 450 MHz to 1.4 MHz.
 It initially consisted of 9.5 million transistors but later version
consists of 28.1 million transistors.
 It consists of new 128-bit registers.
(Intel Pentium III processor)
 AMD Athlon Classic processor:-
 The Athlon Classic launched on June 23, 1999 and was
generally available in August of that year.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 500 MHz to 1 GHz.
 It consists of 22 million transistors.
 It has an instruction cache of 32 KB and data cache of 32 KB,
making total level 1 cache size of 64 KB.
 It consists of a separate level 2 cache of size 512 KB.
 It is a RISC-based processor.
(AMD Athon classic processor)
 AMD Athlon Thunderbird processor: The second generation Athlon, the Thunderbird, debuted on
June 5, 2000.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 600 MHz to 1.4 GHz.
 It consists of 37 million transistors.
 It has an instruction cache of 64 KB and data cache of 64 KB ,
making total level 1 cache size of 128 KB.
 It has a L2 cache of size 256 KB.
 It too supports both MMX and 3DNow! Instruction set.
 It is also a RISC-based processor.
(AMD Athlon Thunderbird processor)
 Intel Pentium 4 processor: The Pentium 4 brands refers to Intel's line of single-core
desktop and laptop central processing units (CPUs) introduced
on November 20, 2000 and shipped through August 8, 2008.
 They had the 7th-generation x86 micro architecture, called Net
Burst, which was the company's first all-new design since
introduction of P6 micro architecture of the Pentium Pro CPUs
in 1995.
 Net Burst differed from the preceding P6 (Pentium III, II, etc.)
by featuring a very deep instruction pipeline to achieve very
high clock speeds (up to 3.8 GHz) limited only by TDPs
reaching up to 115 W in 3.4 GHz –3.8 GHz Prescott and
Prescotts 2M cores . In 2004, the initial 32-bit x86 instruction
set of the Pentium 4 microprocessors was extended by the 64bit x86-64 set.
 The first Pentium 4 cores, codenamed Willamette, were clocked
from 1.3 GHz to 2 GHz and the first Willamette processor was
released on November 20, 2000 using Socket 423. Notable
with the introduction of the Pentium 4 was the 400 MHz FSB.
 It actually operated at 100 MHz but the FSB was quadpumped, meaning that the maximum transfer rate was four
times that of a normal bus, so it was considered to run at
400 MHz. The AMD Athol’s double-pumped FSB was running
at 200 MHz or 266 MHz at that time.
 Pentium 4 CPUs introduced the SSE2 and, in the Prescottbased Pentium 4s, SSE3 instruction sets to accelerate
calculations, transactions, media processing, 3D graphics, and
 Later versions featured Hyper-Threading Technology (HTT), a
feature to make one physical CPU work as two logical and
virtual CPUs.
 Intel also marketed a version of their low-end Celeron
processors based on the Net Burst micro architecture (often
referred to as Celeron 4), and a high-end derivative, Xeon,
intended for multiprocessor servers and workstations.
 In 2005, the Pentium 4 was complemented by the Pentium D
and Pentium Extreme Edition dual-core CPUs.
(Pentium 4 processor)
 It has CPU seed ranging from 1.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz.
 42 Willamette versions, 55 Northwood versions, 169 Gallatin
versions, 125 or 169 Prescott versions, 188 cedar Mill version
million transistors.
 20 Wilmette versions, 21 Northwood versions, 31 Pentium 4
version stages.
 AMD Duron processor: The AMD Duron was an x86-compatible computer processor
manufactured by AMD.
 It was released on June 19, 2000 as a low-cost alternative to
AMD's own Athlon processor and the Pentium III and Celeron
processor lines from rival Intel.
 The Duron was discontinued in 2004 and succeeded by the
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 600 MHz to 1.8 GHz.
 It consists of about 25.2 million transistors.
 It has a L1 cache size of 128 KB.
(AMD duron processor)
 It like Athlon processors supports both MMX and 3DNow!
Instruction sets.
 It is packaged using SPGA to insert into Socket A.
 Intel Xeon processor: The first Xeon-branded processor was the Pentium II Xeon
(code-named "Drake").
 It was released in 1998, replacing the Pentium Pro in Intel's
server lineup.
 The Pentium II Xeon was a "Deschutes" Pentium II (and
shared the same product code: 80523) with a full-speed
512 KB, 1 MB, or 2 MB L2 cache.
 The L2 cache was implemented with custom 512 KB SRAMs
developed by Intel.
 The number of SRAMs depended on the amount of cache.
 A 512 KB configuration required one SRAM, a 1 MB
configuration: two SRAMs, and a 2 MB configuration: four
SRAMs on both sides of the PCB.
 Each SRAM was a 12.90 mm by 17.23 mm (222.21 mm²) die
fabricated in a 0.35 µm four-layer metal CMOS process and
packaged in a cavity-down wire-bonded land grid array (LGA).
 The additional cache required a larger module and thus the
Pentium II Xeon used a larger slot, Slot 2.
 It was supported by the 440GX dual-processor workstation
chipset and the 450NX quad- or octo-processor chipset.
 It has CPU speed ranging from 1.6 GHz to 3.2 GHz.
 It supports SSE2 instruction sets.
 It supports multiprocessing where you can connect 2, 4 or
even 8 processor on a single motherboard.
(Intel Xeon processor)
 Intel Itanium processors: Itanium processor, codenamed Merced, was released in 2001.
 It is a 64-bit processor.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 733 MHz to 1.6 GHz.
 It consists of 25 million and 220 million transistors.
(Intel Itanium processor)
 It supports EPIC instruction set.
 It consists f a L1 cache of size 32 KB, L2 cache of size
256 KB.
 Intel Pentium M processor: The Pentium M brand refers to a family of mobile single-core
x86 microprocessors introduced in March 2003, and forming
a part of the Intel Centrino platform.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 900 MHz to 2.26 GHz.
 It consists of 77 million transistors.
 It consists of L1 cache of size 64 KB and L2 cache of size 1
 It supports MMX, SSE and SSE2 instruction sets.
(Intel Pentium M processor)
 Intel Centrino Mobile Technology:-
 Intel Centrino Processors and Chipsets. The purpose of
Centrino technology is to allow optimized wireless
communication for laptops.
 Intel Centrino mobile technology is actually the combination of
3 new chips from Intel: the Intel® Pentium® M processor, the
Intel® 855 Chipset Family and the Intel® PRO/Wireless 2100
Network Connection.
(Centrino Logo)
 Intel Pentium M processor.
 Intel Pentium D processor: The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core
64-bit x86 microprocessors with the Net Burst micro
architecture manufactured by Intel.
 Each CPU comprised two dies, each containing a single core,
residing next to each other on a multi-chip module package.
 The brand's first processor, codenamed Smithfield, was
released by Intel on May 25, 2005.
 It core comes in two forms: Smithfield and presler.
 It has a CPU speed ranging from 900 MHz to 2.26 GHz.
 It consists of 230 million or 376 million transistors.
(Intel Pentium D processor)
 It supports MMX, SSE, SSE2, and SSE3 instruction sets.
 Intel Core 2 processor: The core 2 processors were also designed and manufactured
by Intel and were launched in the year 2006.
 Core 2 is a brand encompassing a range of Intel's consumer
64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors
based on the Core micro architecture.
 The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the
quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two
cores, packaged in a multi-chip module.
 The introduction of Core 2 relegated the Pentium brand to
the mid-range market, and reunified laptop and desktop CPU
lines, which previously had been divided into the Pentium 4,
Pentium D, and Pentium M brands.
 The Core micro architecture returned to lower clock rates and
improved the usage of both available clock cycles and power
when compared with the preceding Net Burst micro
architecture of the Pentium 4/D-branded CPUs.
 The Core micro architecture provides more efficient decoding
stages, execution units, caches, and buses, reducing the
power consumption of Core 2-branded CPUs while
increasing their processing capacity.
 Intel's CPUs have varied widely in power consumption
according to clock rate, architecture, and semiconductor
process, shown in the CPU power dissipation tables.
 Core-based processors do not have Hyper-Threading
Technology found in Pentium 4 processors.
 This is because the Core micro architecture is a descendant
of the P6 micro architecture used by Pentium Pro, Pentium II,
Pentium III, and Pentium M. Core 2 also lacks an L3 Cache
found in the Gallatin core of the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition,
although an L3 Cache is present in high-end versions of
Core-based Xeons and Hyper-Threading is present on select
Atom processors.
 Both an L3 cache and Hyper-threading is present in current
Nehalem and West mere processors.
 The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27, 2006,
comprising the Solo (single-core), Duo (dual-core), Quad
(quad-core), and in 2007, the Extreme (dual- or quad-core
CPUs for enthusiasts) version. Intel Core 2 processors with
vPro technology (designed for businesses) include the dualcore and quad-core branches.
 There are three branches of processor that are based on
Intel core 2 architecture. these are:
 Intel core 2 Duo processor: consists of two
independent cores combined together into a single
package and each core is based on Intel’s core
 Intel core 2 quad processor: consists of four
independent cores combined together into a single
package and each core is based on inlets core
 Intel core 2 Extreme processor: Is available in either
as duo processor or quad processor but with improved
performance than duo or quad processors. These
processors are specially designed for gamers and highend multimedia application like 3D modeling and video
 The following figure shows an Intel core 2 Duo
(Intel core 2 Duo processor)
 The following figure shows an Intel core 2 quad
(Intel core 2 quad processor)
 The following figure shows an intel core 2 Extreme
(Intel core 2 extreme processor)