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Name_________________ Date__________ Social Studies Final Exam Study Guide 1. For several decades, citizens living in the Upstate of South Carolina were frustrated that the citizens in the Lowcountry dictated most of the state's politics. How did the invention of the cotton gin in the late 1790s shift this balance of power? 2. Define the concept of Manifest Destiny. 3. Many historians believe that the French and Indian War was one of the leading causes of the American Revolution (which took place two decades later). Why? 4. During the late 1800s, the majority of South Carolina's workers still made their living by: 5. Each time a new state was added to the United States prior to the Civil War, it was debated whether it would allow slavery or be a Free State. Why was South Carolina so interested in these new states? 6. When news of the Boston Massacre traveled throughout America in 1770, many of the colonists began to despise the British presence in America. Why was this event such a major influence on the way Americans viewed Britain? 7. What was the purpose of President Franklin Roosevelt's "New Deal"? 8. When Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper planned his English settlement in Carolina, he decided that the settlers should be able to worship any religion that they chose. Why was the Lord Proprietor anxious to introduce religious freedom to the new colony? 9. Between 1710 and 1740, over 30,000 Africans came to South Carolina. What was the principle reason that these Africans came to South Carolina during these early days of settlement? 10. During the Stono Rebellion of 1739, only a few white citizens near Charleston were killed. Why, despite the fact that there was no major damage, did the Rebellion become such a major concern for the white population? 11. What was the purpose of Slave Codes during the early years of South Carolina's settlement? 12. Confederate soldiers often had trouble getting food, clothing, and ammunition. What made it extremely difficult for the South to get needed supplies to its soldiers? 13. When it was originally settled, South Carolina was known as a "Proprietary Colony." What did this mean? 14. Which geographic features of the city of Columbia explains why it was named the capital of South Carolina in 1790? 15. On April 18, 1775, British troops started to march from Boston to Concord, Massachusetts, to take control of a building where the American colonists were storing weapons and ammunition. What happened on the way to Concord? 16. The immediate result of the Nullification Crisis was the reduction of a federal tariff. However, the Crisis had a much more significant impact. What was it? 17. South Carolina's decision to secede, or break away, from the Union came only a few weeks after which event in American history? 18. What was the major contribution of militia troops (or partisan troops) during the American Revolution? 19. Eliza Lucas Pinckney sparked the economy in South Carolina by learning to grow what crop? 20. The term Triangular Trade is often used to describe the world economy during the 18th century. The three areas involved in this triangular trade were America and the Caribbean, Europe, and West Africa. What was the usual flow of the trading? 21. What was the most immediate and important outcome of the Civil War? 22. The Spanish-American War was fought because nations in Europe and the United States were trying to expand their political control over other countries in the world. This trend, which existed throughout the 19th century, is known as: 23. The trip that African slaves made across the Atlantic on wooden ships was called the: 24. As early as 1660, England began to pass Navigation Acts onto the American colonies. Why did these Acts frustrate the colonists? 25. In the late 1885, Benjamin Tillman gained instant popularity after giving a speech in Bennettsville, South Carolina. Over the next decade, Tillman became one of the most influential men in the state by supporting what issues? 26. One of the most heavily debated programs of Reconstruction was the Freedman's Bureau. While it had mixed results, the primary goal of this program was to: 27. The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776. What was the primary purpose of the Declaration? 28. During the late 19th century, many South Carolinians moved from one part of the state to another. Why? 29. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This freed all of the slaves in the rebellion states (i.e. the Confederate States). What was the strategic reason for doing this? 30. By the mid-1700s, it was becoming apparent that South Carolina was an agricultural colony, while the colonies in New England were leaning towards industry. Why was this the case? 31. In 1774, the colonies (except for Georgia) sent delegates to Philadelphia for the First Continental Congress. What was the purpose of this meeting? 32. Some time after 5,000 BC, Native Americans stopped living a nomadic lifestyle and began living in small villages for longer periods of time. What made this development possible? 33. What was the first legislative body to meet in America? 34. The Confederate and Union Armies were not always evenly matched. Name one obvious advantage that the Union Army had over the Confederates. 35. In the late 1600s, men who wished to move to the New World and establish a settlement in Carolina often approached the King to ask for a Royal Charter. What is the definition for a Royal Charter? 36. Much of the labor in the early settlements was provided by indentured servants. These were young men who had to work without pay until they settled a certain debt. What was the debt that the indentured servants were working to repay? 37. During the Constitutional Convention, states with smaller populations (like South Carolina) became concerned that they would not have fair representation in the new government. In the end, delegates came up with the Great Compromise. Describe the details of the compromise. 38. Thousands of African Americans left South Carolina during the early 1900s. What was the most likely reason for this "outmigration"? 39. Describe racial relations in South Carolina during Reconstruction. 40. Formed in 1869, the Knights of Labor was one of the first successful labor unions in the United States. What was the main purpose of labor unions? 41. The 18th amendment to the Constitution focused on the sale of alcoholic beverages and was ratified in 1919. What was an unexpected result of the amendment? 42. After Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, how did citizens living in the North begin to view the Civil War? 43. In the 1890s, Benjamin Tillman supported the Shell Manifesto. What did it call for an end of? 44. In 1896, the controversial Supreme Court case known as Plessy v. Ferguson set the country back several decades. What laws did it uphold? 45. While left out of the original version of the Constitution, the delegates soon agreed to add a Bill of Rights to the document. What was the Bill of Rights? 46. Describes the way the leaders of South Carolina felt about the issue of States' Rights in the decades prior to the Civil War. 47. Why was the state capital moved from Charleston to Columbia in 1786? 48. Who served as the first--and only--President of the Confederate States of America? 49. Who were the two most powerful nations in the world after World War II? 50. The Briggs vs. Elliott case and the Brown vs. Board of Education case both helped end segregation in public schools. What was the main reason for ending segregation? 51. What was the purpose of the new set of "Black Codes", or Jim Crow Laws, that existed in South Carolina during the late 19th century? 52. During the 18th century, the Southern colonies (such as Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas) were making profits by growing rice, indigo, cotton, and tobacco. How did these different crops shape the economy in these colonies in the same way? 53. During World War I, over 65,000 South Carolinians enlisted in the military. Describe another way that the state played a major role in the war effort? 54. In 1828, Andrew Jackson supported a tariff (or tax) on materials arriving from Europe. This tariff sparked the Nullification Crisis because it helped the industrial states in the North, but hurt the economy in the South. Describe Vicepresident John Calhoun's position on the Nullification Crisis. 55. What is the name given to the tense confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union, which lasted for three decades following World War II? 56. Following World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense face-off that lasted for more than thirty years. What was this period of anxiety and uncertainty known as? 57. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution are often referred to as the Reconstruction Amendments. What was the central theme of these three amendments? 58. The 15th century marked the beginning of the Age of Exploration (or the "Age of Discovery"). What was the lasting impact of this period in history? 59. For the most part, South Carolina did not become an industrial state until the 20th century. However, in the mid-1800s, the first signs of industry did start to appear. The first major industry to take hold in South Carolina during the 19th century produced which products? 60. Both the Korean War and Vietnam War were fought to stop the spread of Communism to other parts of the world, regardless of how small or insignificant the country appeared. This policy of ending the spread of Communism was known as: 61. The arrival of European settlers in the 16th and 17th century resulted in a drastic decline of the Native American population. Why did the Native Americans suffer such a drop in population? 62. As more settlers flocked to the Back Country during the 1760s, concerned citizens launched the Regulator Movement. What was the purpose of this movement? 63. During the Great Depression, one person's struggles often contributed to the struggles of another. For example, why might a country store suffer when local farmers lose their jobs? 64. During the late 17th century and early 18th century, South Carolina was under the rule of the Lords Proprietors. Who were the Lords Proprietors? 65. Where was the first permanent English settlement in America? 66. The Stamp Act, Townshend Duties, and Tea Act were all different just different forms of taxes. What is the reason why these taxes infuriated the colonists so much prior to the American Revolution? 67. A huge accomplishment for women in America came in 1920 with the ratification of the 19th amendment. What did this amendment do? 68. In 1954, the Briggs vs. Elliott court case made headlines in Clarendon County, and it later moved to the Supreme Court. The case joined with the famous Brown vs. Board of Education case and helped do what? 69. What were the main goals of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s? 70. European nations established colonies in the New World because they were relying on an economic system known as mercantilism. Describe the theory of mercantilism? 71. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 established the southern boundary of Missouri as an important political divider. According to the compromise, what did this line divide? 72. The most significant policies that went into effect after World War II were the Truman Doctrine (1947), the Marshall Plan (1947), and the creation of NATO (1949). What was the purpose of these programs? 73. In the early 1900s, a movement began that aimed to reform big business, put an end to corrupt government, and provide help to the general public. This movement was known as the: 74. Historians often note that the Compromise of 1850 delayed the Civil War in the United States for an entire decade. The Compromise eased tensions by dealing with what issue? 75. In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that a slave could not sue for his own freedom, even if he lived in a Free State. This was because a slave was not considered an American citizen and had no protection under the law. What is the name of this historical Supreme Court case?