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Transcript
The BIG ideas!
webnote 240
Syllabus
2.4
I.b Syllabus 2.4: Macroeconomic
Objectives: Unemployment
Syllabus 113-119
•
•
•
•
•
•
240: Powerpoint summary
241: Laffer
242: Fiscal policy overview
243: Crowding out
Sample Exam Question – see slide 2
244: Exam Questions
1
http://www.yellowsubmariner.com
Webnote 240
Syllabus reference: items 129 +132
Fiscal Policy
Key government policy to realloate wealth e.g progressive
taxation
2. Key government policy to improve spending in the short run and
therefore a key anti recession policy because it can have
immediate short term effects
3. Typically described as a ‘Keynesian’ policy tool but it is of key
importance for supply siders also. Remember demand and supply
side economists do not “own” fiscal and monetary policy. They
share the use of these policies to manage the macroeconomy
1.
Webnote 330
2
Ib question May 2013 - HP1
Macroeconomics


3. (a) Using a diagram, describe how
expansionary monetary policy might be used to
close a deflationary (recessionary) gap. [10
marks]
(b) Discuss why, in contrast to the
monetarist/new classical model, an economy can
remain stuck in a deflationary (recessionary) gap
according to the Keynesian model.
Webnote 330
3
Web note 330: Laffer Curve
http://[email protected]

A tax rate of 0r1
Diagram 1: Laffer Curve
maximises tax
A
revenue because tax
revenue
more people want
to work and firms
will be inclined to
expand
0
Webnote 330
r1
B
r2 average tax rate % Q
4
http://[email protected]
Web
Fiscal policy and taxes

For full details please see
webnote 331 in section
2.4
tax
paid
714 note see 331
Diagram 1: Progressive,
regressive and proportional P
taxation (Direct taxes)
R
t4
t3

P = progressive as average rate
of tax increases as income Y
increases Oy1 to Oy2 the tax
paid increases from 0t1 to 0t2

Pro
R = average rate of tax
decreases as income Y increases.
As income increases Oy1 to Oy2
the total
tax paid increases
from 0t3 to 0t4.
Webnote 331
t2
t1
0
y1
y2
Q
Income (Y)
5
Web note 330: Laffer Curve
http://[email protected]


Critics of the Laffer curve
argue that a cut in tax
Diagram 2: Backward bending supply curve
rates would in all
probability lead to a fall in
tax revenue.
wages
A
Idea here is based on
backward bending supply
curve whereby at higher
B
wage rates workers may
offer less hours of labour
i.e. workers value leisure
time more that additional
hours at work subject of
Supply of
labour
course to some minimum
required standard of living
0
Webnote 330
for Labour
Q
hours worked
6
Evaluate Fiscal Policy syllabus
119
Webnote 330
7
syllabus 119 + 117
119 (weight = 5)
 Evaluate the effectiveness
of fiscal policy through
consideration of factors
including the ability to target
sectors of the economy, the direct
impact on aggregate
demand, the effectiveness of
promoting economic activity in a
recession, time lags, political
constraints, crowding out, and the
inability to deal with supply-side
causes of instability.

Webnote 330


117
Explain how factors including
the progressive tax system and
unemployment benefits, which
are influenced by the level of
economic activity and national
income, automatically help
stabilize short-term fluctuations.
8
Exam November 2014


4a
Using an
appropriate
diagram, explain
how a recession
might lead to more
poverty. (10
marks)
Webnote 330


4b
Evaluate the view
that attempts to
achieve greater
equity in the
distribution of
income will reduce
economic efficiency
(15 marks)
9
http://[email protected]



Web note 330: Laffer Curve
Reading:
See Glanville p.334
and McGee ‘The
Good, the bad and
the economist’ p.455
End
Webnote 330
10