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Climate Change Adaptation
Developing institutions and communities
ability to adapt and respond to
climate variability and long
term climate change
Taito Nakalevu
South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
Presentation Format
•
•
•
•
•
Climate change - people’s perspective;
Impacts; - Financial Implications ;
Adaptation;
CIDA funded and SPREP executed project ;
Gaps
Climate is Changing
• Climate – impacted positively & negatively
on PICs since time immemorial;
• Influences how: plan, built & grow;
• Impacted on crop yields and ocean harvest;
• It has impacted on the basic livelihood of
the people of the Pacific.
Climate is Changing
• Anecdotal information - general consensus
that climate is changing;
• Frequency & severity of storms, increasing;
• Not a very clear distinction of dry-coldwinter vis-à-vis hot-wet-summer;
Impacts of a changing climate
• Drought of 1997 – 1998
–
–
–
–
Fiji overall impact equivalent to 3% GDP
Tonga - squash seriously affected
PNG aid money approx $A30 million
Marshall severe water shortage, led US to bring
in desalinization machines reduce water
shortage
– FSM crops & water supply severely affected
Impacts of a changing climate
• Kiribati – flooded:
–
–
–
–
13-14th December 2001;
on 28th February;
1st March 2002
October 5th – 7th 2002
• (Sea Level prediction at the time 2.8mm but due to storm
surges – SL level rose to 2.9mm )
• Flooding, sea wall collapse & agricultural crop
damages could cost millions of dollars;
• Frequency & Intensity – no longer abstract
Impacts of a changing climate
• Letua village in the Torres Group of Islands
in Vanuatu is silently facing sea water
inundation.
• People suffered, and suffered in silence;
• How much is the cost ?
Estimated Average Annual Incremental Costs of
Climate Change in Viti Levu, Fiji, 2050
(in the absence of adaptation)
Incremental
Likely Cost of an
Annual Damages
Extreme Event
(in millions of 1998 US$)
Coastal Erosion
Coastal Inundation
Loss of Coral Reefs
Increase in Cyclone Intensity
Impact on Water Supply
Impact on Agriculture
Impact on Dengue Fever
Impact on Diarrheal Disease
Other Impacts
Average Annual Damages
% of GDP (1998)
3-6
0-1
5-14
0-11
+
14
1-6
0-1
++
>23-52+
2-4%
75-90
Large storm
40
50-70
70
30
Cyclone
Drought
Drought
Large epidemic
Estimated Average Annual Incremental Costs of
Climate Change in Tarawa Atoll, Kiribati, 2050
(in the absence of adaptation)
Incremental
Likely Cost of an
Annual Damages
Extreme Event
(in millions of 1998 US$)
Coastal Erosion
Coastal Inundation
Loss of Coral Reefs
Impact on Water Supply
Impact on Agriculture
Impact on Public Health
Average Annual Damages
% of GDP (1998)
0.1-0.3
7-12
0.2-0.5
1-3
+
++
>8-16+
17-34%
210-430
Large storm
Financial Implications
• Increase in % of budgets spent on increased
unplanned & unbudgeted events;
• Changes to scenic & aesthetic values - it might
affect tourism industry: pressure for govts to
increase expenditure on natural systems;
• Increase overall expenditure on maintenance &
damages to infrastructure (e.g. coastal
infrastructure, fresh water supply etc.);
• Unaccounted costs - increased financial leakage
PICs have adapted overtime
• Overtime people have adapted - e.g.
relocate dwelling houses due to sea level
rise and erosion;
• Experimented with ways of harnessing
water during droughts;
• "I've cemented the bottom and sides of
this pit to prevent the seawater coming
up," he explained. "Now, with this kind
of method, you can grow pulaka
anywhere in the islands."
• Limited resources - need for adaptation
to be addressed at a higher level than the
community.
Regional Response
• Pacific Island Climate Change Assistance
Programme (PICCAP) – UNDP GEF
–
–
–
–
–
Pacific Island Framework for Action;
Climate Change Round Table;
Assist PICs in regional and international negotiations;
Assist PICs to develop 1st National Communication &
Develop in collaboration with PICs project proposals
CBDAMPIC PROJECT
• CIDA funded initiative to carry out adaptation
work in the Pacific;
• Donor – CIDA
• Executing Agency - SPREP
• PROJECT – Implemented in 4 Countries;
– Cook Is., Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu
What is SPREP?
 SOUTH PACIFIC REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT
PROGRAMME
 Intergovernmental organisation;
 Responsible for environmental matters
in Pacific Islands region ;
 Members-Govt’s and Administration of 21
PICs and territories and four 4
developed countries.
CBDAMPIC Project
• Project has 4 main
components:
– Capacity Building;
• Policy & Adaptation Strategy
Development,
• Awareness Material
Development, &
• Seminar Material Dev.
– Methodology Development;
• Community V & A
– Pilot projects
• Mainstream & Implement
– Regional linkages
THE NEED - PICs
• Capacity Building
• Technology Transfer
• Adaptation Financing
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
PATIENCE
• Questions