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Unit 2 Vocabulary Flash Cards
Cell membrane
Robert Hooke
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Matthias Schleiden
Theodor Schwann
Any living thing; made of cells, can be
one cell or made of many cells and carries
out all the life process needed to survive
on its own
Smallest unit of a living organisms that
can do the processes needed for life
The only liquid organelle of the cell, it includes
all the liquid and other organelles outside of
the nucleus, it moves them around and cushions
them from impact with the cell membrane
Organelle that controls what goes into an out
of the cell, it’s the outside of the animal
cell so it also supports and protects the
animal cell; doorway of the cell
Organelle that controls all the actions
going on by the cell, holds the DNA
of eukaryotic cells
Tiny part inside the cell that has a
specific job to do
Any organism, unicellular or multicellular,
that has a nucleus to protect the DNA
Unicellular, or one celled organism, that
does not have a nucleus. The DNA is
floating around in the cytoplasm of the
cell and is not protected
Organism, or living thing, that is made up of
more than one cell working together to keep
the organism alive; dog, tree, mushroom, etc
Organism, or living thing, that is made up
of only one cell; bacteria, protest, etc
Scientists that first discovered cells, in a
piece of cork; made of one the
earliest microscopes
Scientists that discovered the first living
cell, in pond water
Scientist that researched plants and figured
out that all plants are made of cells
Scientist that researched animals and figured
out that all animals are made of cells; he
concluded that all living things are made of
cells and cells are the basic unit of all
living things
Rudolf Virchow
Francesco Redi
Nucleic acid
Endoplasmic reticulum
Scientist that figured out that living organisms
have to come from other living organisms;
used the meat and maggots experiment to
prove this
Scientists that figured out how cells are created,
cells are created from other living cells
Smallest particle of matter, makes up all
living and nonliving things
The genetic material, usually found inside
the nucleus of a cell, that gives the instructions
for the cell as well as passes down genetic
information from parent to child
Fat molecule or something that is similar
to fat; they don’t mix with water and
store energy for the cell
Group of atoms that are chemically
combined together, like water
Molecules that include sugars, starches,
and fibers; used to store energy as
fat in the body
Molecule made up of amino acids that
build and repair body parts and
regulate body processes; found in meat,
peanut butter, etc
A double layer of this creates the cell
membrane and moves water into or out
of the membrane; made up of a lipid
that has phosphorus
Molecule that carries information in cells;
examples are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Organelle that does cellular respiration to release
stored energy from food in the form of ATP,
adenosine triphosphate; only source of energy
in animal cells and the backup source of
energy in plant cells
Organelle that moves things within the cell;
has ribosomes attached to the inner walls;
acts as the transportation system of the cell,
like a highway system
A network of protein filaments that give
shape and support to cells and helps
certain types of cells move
Smallest organelle of the cell, it is RNA and
makes proteins; it is made in the nucleolus
of the cell; most are attached to the walls
of the endoplasmic reticulum with some
floating freely in the cytoplasm
Golgi complex or Golgi body
Cell wall
Nuclear membrane
Organ system
Organelle that is on the outside of the plant
cell, it supports and protects the plant cell
and give it structure so the plant can
grow really tall
Organelle that packages up and sends
materials out to be shipped through the
endoplasmic reticulum; like a post office
Organelle in the plant cell that creates energy
through the process of photosynthesis; contains
the liquid chlorophyll and is usually green in
color, usually found surrounding the vacuole
Organelle that stores substances. One large
one in the plant cell that holds only water.
Many smaller ones in the animal cell that
hold water, food, waste, etc
Organelle in the nucleus that makes
the ribosomes
Organelle in the animal cell that has digestive
enzymes and does many things; it breaks down
food into smaller pieces for the mitochondria
to use, breaks down waste and pushes it out
the cell, breaks down worn or damaged
organelles so new ones can be made
Green pigment inside the chloroplast that
absorbs the energy from sunlight so the
chloroplast can do photosynthesis
Organelle that surrounds the nucleus. It
supports and protects the nucleus as well
as allows things into or out of the nucleus
and keeps things out of the nucleus;
doorway of the nucleus
A group of tissues working together to
do a common job
A group of similar cells working together
to do a common job
Arrangement of parts in an organism
or living thing
A group of different organs working
together to perform a body function
Keeping the inside conditions the same
even when the temperature outside
changes, includes body temperature,
energy level, getting oxygen, etc
Activity of each part in an organism
Cellular respiration
Passive transport
Active transport
Process where organisms break down
glucose (food) with oxygen to release
energy (in the form of ATP), and make
carbon dioxide, and water; done in the
mitochondria of cells
Process where plants use energy from
sunlight, carbon dioxide, & water to make
glucose, a sugar, and oxygen; done in the
chloroplast of cells
The movement of a liquid or gas across the
cell membrane without using energy; substances
move from where there is more of them to
where there are less of them until there is an
equal amount inside and outside the cell
The process where DNA is duplicated
and the nucleus of a cell is split into
two nuclei; two identical cells are
created during this process
A special type of diffusion where water
moves across a cell membrane from areas
of higher concentrations to areas
of lower concentrations
A process where liquids and gases move from
where there are more molecules to where there
are less molecules until there is an equal
amount all over; no energy is used
Process where a cell uses energy to surround
a particle and bring it into a cell creating a
vacuole for it; how some unicellular
organisms get food
Movement of particles that requires energy
to happen; either moving molecules from
low concentrations to high concentrations
or moving larger molecules
Sugar plants make during photosynthesis;
stores energy and is what animals need
when they eat plants; C6H12O6
Process where a vacuole full of stuff, like waste,
is pushed up to the cell membrane, then
shoved outside the cell