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Table 1. Strength of chlorine sanitizing wash recommended for various types of
produce.
Type of Produce
Apples, pears, squash, cucumbers
Leafy greens, peaches, peppers, tomatoes,
asparagus, broccoli, carrots
Melons, citrus, root crops
Berries (strawberries, blueberries, blackberries,
raspberries, etc)
Recommended
PPM Chlorine
65 PPM
130 PPM
Bleach/gallon
of water 1
1 tsp/gal
2 tsp/gal
400 PPM2
No washing
2 tblsp/gal
1
Bleach/gallon of water based on using household bleasch containing no fragrances or thickeners with a base concentration of
5.25% sodium hypochlorite.
2 Sanitizing wash should be followed by a potable water rinse.
Table 2. Common Types of Sanitizers and Their Characteristics
Sanitizer
Uses
Recommended Contact
Concentrations Time
Required
Advantages Disadvantages
Chlorine Based
Produce
wash
water,
equipment,
facilities
Hands,
facilities,
food
contact
surfaces &
equipment
Facilities,
food
contactsurfaces &
equipment
<200 ppm without
rinsing
<2,000 ppm with
potable water rinse
1 to 5
minutes at
200 ppm
*Inexpensive
*Available
* Wide range of
effectiveness
* Corrosive
* Irritating fumes
* Rapid loss of
effectiveness
<200 ppm without
rinsing
*200-500 ppm with
potable water rinse
> 1 minute
*Non-corrosive
*Relatively nonirritating
* Good residual
activity/stability
* Less effective than
others for control of E
coli
*12.5- 25 ppm
without rinsing
>25 ppm with
potable water rinse
> 1 minute
* Effective at;
- Low conc
- Wide pH range
- Hard water
-8 Non-irritating
* Good
Penetration
* Prevents biofilm
formation
* Good residual
* Expensive
* May stain
* Not a cleaner
Quaternary
Ammonia
“Quats”
Iodophors
“Iodinebased”
Table 3. Efficacy of Various Chloride Sanitizers
COMMON
DISINFECTANT
PROPERTIES
CHLORINE GAS
SODIUM OR CALCIUM
HYPOCHLORITE
CHLORINE
DIOXIDE
Disinfection
Action
High
High
High, better than
chlorine
Specificity
Generally effective,
including, viruses;
reference sanitizer.
Limited practical effect on
parasitic spores (i.e.
Crytosporidium). Oxidizer
and metabolic poison.
Generally effective,
including viruses;
reference sanitizer.
Limited practical effect on
parasitic spores (i.e.
Crytosporidium). Oxidizer
and metabolic poison.
Generally effective.
Recognized for
biofilm penetration.
Oxidizer.
Speed
fastest
fastest
fast-acting
Form
Compressed gas. On-site
injection.
Concentrated hypochlorite
solution or powder
On-site generation
from precursors, or
sodium chlorate and
hypochlorite
solutions. Some
stabilized forms
released on
acidification.
Stability
Good
Good as powder, fair as
liquid
Good
Preparation
Easy
Easy
Complex equipment
or procedure
Measurement
Easy. Functional relation
to redox potential (ORP).
Easy. Functional relation
to redox potential (ORP).
More difficult.
Moderately
functional relation to
redox potential
(ORP).
Stability
Good
Good
Moderate
Irritancy
Low
Low
Very irritating vapors
Vapors
None at correct pH
None at correct pH
Typical odor, yellowgreen, dangerous
pH impact
Most active at pH of 6-7.5
Most active at pH of 6-7.5
Effective at broad
pH, best at 8.5
Temperature
For produce, generally
cold water, but heated
water up to 52oC in use
For produce, generally
cold water, but heated
water up to 52oC in use
Use at low temp to
minimize
vaporization. Some
use of gaseous
forms on produce.
Conc.
25 to 200 ppm
25 to 200 ppm, 20,000
ppm limited approval for
sprout seed disinfection
3 to 5 ppm
Penetration
Poor
Poor
Poor
Hard Water
Activity decreases in very
hard water(>500 ppm)
Activity decreases in very
hard water(>500 ppm)
No effect
Organic Matter
Reacts to from
chloramines
Reacts to from
chloramines
Little influence, even
at high organic load
Solution
Corrosiveness
Slight to moderate
Slight to moderate
Very Corrosive at
low pH
Corrosive offgassing
Possible, through
condensation
Possible, through
condensation
Slight corrosion
Other
Very corrosive below pH
6
Very corrosive below pH 6
Vapor space
corrosion with high
temp.
Best use
Food contact surfaces,
water disinfection,
smooth produce surfaces
Food contact surfaces,
water disinfection, smooth
produce surfaces
High organic load
situations, smooth
or complex produce
surfaces, flume
water disinfection
Disadvantages:
Requires tight pH and
concentration control;
highly corrosive, when
improperly used;
produces corrosive gas
above 46oC.
Requires tight pH and
concentration control;
highly corrosive, when
improperly used; produces
corrosive gas above 46oC.
Complex
preparation;
corrosive in acid
solution; very
difficult to handle
unless preparation
is automated