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AACR and other questions to be used as extra credit at end of 2150
1. The following is a DNA sequence. The coding sequence of the gene is in bold and italicized
and the promoter is underlined.
DNA 5’ T G*A A G G A A T T A T A A T A C G A C C A T G A T G T A C G C A T A A A C G T 3’
A mutation occurs in which a base (T) is inserted into the DNA sequence after the G, at the
position marked with an asterisk, before transcription begins. How will this alteration influence
the mRNA produced?
2. A child is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome. One way this can occur is
due to a mistake in separation of chromosomes in the production of the egg (in either meiosis I
or II). Explain another way this could occur.
Question: should we include meiosis I and II or leave out?
3. A woman and a man have the same mutation in a gene on the X chromosome. This gene
normally encodes for a protein required for blood clotting. The mutation results in no protein
product being made from this gene. Each of them has one copy of this mutation. Ignore the
possible effects of X inactivation. How would a biologist: A. explain how this mutation could
affect the woman? B. explain how this mutation could affect the man?
4. [no suggested change] A scientist researching a gene in human uses mice to conduct her
research because mice have a gene that is very similar to the human gene. When the scientist
looks at the human and mouse DNA and amino acid sequences for these similar genes, she
finds that the amino acid sequences are more similar than the DNA sequences. How would she
explain this finding?
5. [no suggested change] A population of buffaloes lives in a relatively isolated area where they
do not have access to other populations of buffaloes. Over the course of a few generations,
scientists observe that many individuals have a new hair color not previously seen in this
population. Scientists also discover that the buffaloes with the new hair color produce more
surviving offspring than those with the old hair color.
1. How would a biologist explain how this hair color first appeared in
the population?
2. How would a biologist explain the rapid increase in the number of
buffaloes with the new hair color?
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