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EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS
ROCKS
What’s your favorite
volcano?
Volcanoes and Volcanic Rocks
Famous Volcanoes
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Basalts
Dotsero, CO
Kilauea
Mauna Loa
Haleakala
Hekla
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Andesites
Fuji
St. Helens
Ranier
Shasta
Stromboli
Vesuvius
Popocatepetl
Orizaba
Pelée
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Rhyolites
Yellowstone
Valles
Long Valley
Crater Lake
Pinatubo
Krakatao
Santorini
Campi Phlegri
(Naples)
Where do volcanoes occur?
Do you clean your
volcanoes regularly?
Where do volcanoes occur?
• Plate Boundaries (98%)
– Divergent
– Ocean-ocean convergent
– Ocean-continent
Convergent
• Hot (wet) Spots
1
Where do volcanoes not
occur?
Most Volcanoes are at Plate Boundaries
• Cratons
• Passive continental margins
• Oceanic abyssal plains
• Continent – continent
convergent boundaries
Igneous Rock Names
and Compositions
• Composition
Name
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Ultramafic
Mafic
Intermediate
Silicic (felsic)
• Intrusive
• Volcanic
Rock Name
Rock Name
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Peridotite
Gabbro
Diorite
Granite
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(Komatiite)
Basalt
Andesite
Rhyolite
Magma and Lava
• Magma is the term for any molten
silicate material, whether below
the surface or on top.
• Volcanic rocks are erupted on the
surface.
– Volcanic rocks are fine-grained (<1
mm)
• Lava is the term for a magma on
the surface.
Most Volcanoes are at Plate Boundaries
Geologic Settings
2
Basaltic Eruptions
Pahoehoe, Hawaii (Basalt)
• Low Viscosity
• High Temperature (1000 - 1200ºC)
• Normally Quiescent Lava Flows
– Aa - early, low temperature, blocky
flow
– Pahoehoe - later high temperature
ropy flow
– Pillow Lavas - underwater flow
• Edifice
– Shields
– Cinder cones
Aa, Hawaii (Basalt)
Cinder
Cone,
Pu’uo’o,
Hawaii
(Basalt)
Pillow Lava, Kauai (Basalt)
Most Volcanoes are at Plate Boundaries
3
Cinder Cone + Caldera, (Basalt)
Skjaldbreidur Shield, (Basalt)
Caldera, (Basalt) Halemaumau
Basalt Flow Grand Canyon
< 1My old
Columnar Basalt
Basaltic Eruptions
• Low Viscosity
• High Temperature (1000 - 1200ºC)
• Normally Quiescent Lava Flows
– Aa - early, low temperature, blocky
flow
– Pahoehoe - later high temperature
ropy flow
– Pillow Lavas - underwater flow
• Edifice
– Shields
– Cinder cones
4
Famous Volcanoes
Basalts
Dotsero, CO
Kilauea
Mauna Loa
Haleakala
Hekla
Vulcan’s
Throne
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Andesites
Fuji
St. Helens
Ranier
Shasta
Stromboli
Vesuvius
Popocatepetl
Orizaba
Pelée
Etna
•
•
•
•
•
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•
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•
Rhyolites
Yellowstone
Valles/Jemez
Long Valley
Crater Lake
Pinatubo
Krakatao
Santorini
Campi Phlegri
(Naples)
Andesite Eruptions
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Most Volcanoes are at Plate Boundaries
Geologic Settings
Higher viscosity (higher polymerization)
Lower temperature
More water, more explosive
Subduction zone volcanism
Flows
– Viscous lava flows
– Pyroclastic flows
• Edifice
– Composite Cones
Clicker Question
Clicker Question
Plate tectonics explains the
global pattern of volcanism.
Plate tectonics explains the
global pattern of volcanism.
Which volcanic environment will, on average, produce
the most felsic (silicic) lavas?
Which volcanic environment will, on average, produce
the most felsic (silicic) lavas?
A. Mid-ocean ridge
B. Island arc
C. Continental arc
D. Oceanic hotspot
A. Mid-ocean ridge
B. Island arc
C. Continental arc
D. Oceanic hotspot
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Clicker Question
Clicker Question
Plate tectonics explains the
global pattern of volcanism.
Plate tectonics explains the
global pattern of volcanism.
What composition volcanic rocks characterize
magmatism at mid-ocean ridges?
What composition volcanic rocks characterize
magmatism at mid-ocean ridges?
A. Carbonatite
B. Basalt
C. Andesite
D. Rhyolite
A. Carbonatite
B. Basalt
C. Andesite
D. Rhyolite
Andesite Flow, Mt Shasta
Composite Cone, Mt. Fuji,
Japan
Composite Cone, Mt. Daisen
Composite Cone,
Llaima Volcano, Chile
6
Ash Flow Eruption,
Llaima Volcano, Chile
Composite Cone, Mt. St Helens
7
Andesite Eruptions
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•
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Higher viscosity (higher polymerization)
Lower temperature
More water, more explosive
Subduction zone volcanism
Flows
– Viscous lava flows
– Pyroclastic flows (Nuée Ardente)
• Edifice
– Composite Cones
Famous Volcanoes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basalts
Dotsero, CO
Kilauea
Mauna Loa
Haleakala
Hekla
Vulcan’s
Throne
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Andesites
Fuji
St. Helens
Ranier
Shasta
Stromboli
Vesuvius
Popocatepetl
Orizaba
Pelée
Etna
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rhyolites
Yellowstone
Valles/Jemez
Long Valley
Crater Lake
Pinatubo
Krakatao
Santorini
Campi Phlegri
(Naples)
Clicker Question
• Which of the following is an
example of a basalt volcano?
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A. Mt St. Helens
B. Yellowstone
C. Mauna Loa
D. Mt Pinatubo
E. Mt. Fuji
Clicker Question
Clicker Question
• Which of the following is an
• Which of the following is an
example of a basalt volcano?
– A. Mt St. Helens
– B. Yellowstone
– C. Mauna Loa
– D. Mt Pinatubo
– E. Mt. Fuji
example of an andesite volcano?
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–
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A. Kilauea
B. Yellowstone
C. Mauna Loa
D. Mt Pinatubo
E. Mt. Fuji
8
Clicker Question
• Which of the following is an
example of an andesite volcano?
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–
–
–
A.
B.
C.
D.
Kilauea
Yellowstone
Mauna Loa
Mt Pinatubo
– E. Mt. Fuji
Rhyolite Eruptions
Rhyolite Eruptions
• Very high viscosity
• Low temperature (600 - 800ºC)
• Massive Pyroclastic eruptions
– Air fall (pumice)
– Ash Flow (Nuée Ardente) Tuff
– Obsidian Flows
• Edifice
– Caldera (5 - 25 km)
– Resurgent dome
Geologic Settings
• Associated Phenomena
– Hot Springs
– Geysers
– Fumaroles
• Geologic Setting
– Continental Margins and Interiors
– Subduction Zones
Pumice = Glass foam
Ash-Flow
Tuff
with
Air-Fall
Units
(pumice)
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Ash-Flow Tuff Unit
Ash-Flow Tuff Unit
Non-Welded Top
Welded Core
Vitrophyre
Non-welded base
Silicic Tuff Units (Jemez, NM)
Sulfur Fumarole, Nysseros
Obsidian Flow
Non-welded
Air-Fall Units
Caldera with Cinder Cone
Crater Lake, OR
10
Rhyolite Eruptions
Geyser
• Very high viscosity
• Low temperature (600 - 800ºC)
• Massive Pyroclastic eruptions
Old Faithful
(Yellowstone)
– Air fall (pumice)
– Ash Flow (Nuée Ardente) Tuff
– Obsidian Flows
• Edifice
– Caldera (5 - 25 km)
– Resurgent dome
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Andesite Eruptions
Basaltic Eruptions
Higher viscosity (higher polymerization)
Lower temperature
More water, more explosive
Subduction zone volcanism
Flows
• Low Viscosity
• High Temperature (1000 - 1200ºC)
• Normally Quiescent Lava Flows
– Aa - early, low temperature, blocky
– Viscous lava flows
– Pyroclastic flows
flow
– Pahoehoe - later high temperature
ropy flow
– Pillow Lavas - underwater flow
• Edifice
• Edifice
– Shields
– Cinder cones
– Composite Cones
Crater Lake, OR
Crater Lake, OR
A.Basalt
A.Basalt
B.Andesite
B.Andesite
C.Rhyolite
C.Rhyolite
11
Mt. St. Helens
Mt. St. Helens
A.Basalt
A.Basalt
B.Andesite
B.Andesite
C.Rhyolite
C.Rhyolite
Kilauea
Kilauea
A.Basalt
A.Basalt
B.Andesite
B.Andesite
C.Rhyolite
C.Rhyolite
Geologic Settings
Most Volcanoes are at Plate Boundaries
12
Famous Volcanoes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basalts
Dotsero, CO
Kilauea
Mauna Loa
Haleakala
Hekla
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Andesites
Fuji
St. Helens
Ranier
Shasta
Stromboli
Vesuvius
Popocatepetl
Orizaba
Pelée
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rhyolites
Yellowstone
Valles/Jemez
Long Valley
Crater Lake
Pinatubo
Krakatao
Santorini
Campi Phlegri
(Naples)
Volcanic Terms
•
•
•
•
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•
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS
ROCKS
Ultramafic
Mafic
Intermediate
Silicic
Basalt
Andesite
Magma
Lava
Aa
Pahoehoe
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tuff
Obsidian
Vitrophyre
Cone
Pumice
Cinder Cone
Resurgent
Caldera
dome
Pyroclastic
• Hot Spring
Nuée Ardente
• Geyser
Air Fall
• Rhyolite
Ash Flow
•
•
•
•
•
Igneous Rock Names
and Compositions
• Intrusive
• Volcanic
Rock Name
Rock Name
• Composition
Name
Volcanoes and Volcanic Rocks
• Pillow Lava
• Shield
• Composite
•
•
•
•
Most Volcanoes are at Plate Boundaries
Ultramafic
Mafic
Intermediate
Silicic (felsic)
•
•
•
•
Peridotite
Gabbro
Diorite
Granite
•
•
•
•
(Komatiite)
Basalt
Andesite
Rhyolite
Famous Volcanoes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basalts
Dotsero, CO
Kilauea
Mauna Loa
Haleakala
Hekla
Vulcan’s
Throne
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Andesites
Fuji
St. Helens
Ranier
Shasta
Stromboli
Vesuvius
Popocatepetl
Orizaba
Pelée
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rhyolites
Yellowstone
Valles
Long Valley
Crater Lake
Pinatubo
Krakatao
Santorini
Campi Phlegri
(Naples)
13
Volcanic Terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ultramafic
Mafic
Intermediate
Silicic
Basalt
Andesite
Magma
Lava
Aa
Pahoehoe
• Pillow Lava
• Shield
• Composite
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clicker Not Registered
Tuff
Obsidian
Vitrophyre
Cone
Pumice
Cinder Cone
Resurgent
Caldera
dome
Pyroclastic
• Hot Spring
Nuée Ardente
• Geyser
Air Fall
• Rhyolite
Ash Flow
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•
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•
Clicker Not Registered
• McClelland, A
•
•
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Keegan, R.
Moten, J.
Runyon, K.
Scott, G.
Shepley, J.
Wheeler, S.
Clicker Not Registered
• McClelland, A
•
•
•
•
•
•
Keegan, R.
Moten, J.
Runyon, K.
Scott, G.
Shepley, J.
Wheeler, S.
14
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