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BONES OF LOWER EXTREMITY Pelvis The pelvis is composed of three bones: Ilium Ischium Pubis Pelvis: Lateral Surface Acetabular fossa: For articulation with head of femur. Lunate surface. Acetabular notch. Acetabular labrum: Fibrocartilage rim around edge of acetabulum. Pelvis: Lateral Surface Obturator foramen: Covered by membrane. Passage for obturator nerve and vessels. Pelvis: Lateral Surface Ischial ramus. Pubic rami: Superior. Inferior. Pubic tubercle: Attachment for inguinal ligament. Pelvis: Anterior Edge Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) Attachment of inguinal ligament. Proximal attachment for: Sartorius muscle. Figure 3.3. Pelvis: Anterior Edge Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS): Proximal attachment for: Straight head of rectus femoris. Pelvis: Posterior Edge Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS). Greater sciatic notch: Converted into superior and inferior parts by piriformis muscle. Pelvis: Posterior Edge Lesser sciatic notch. Ischial spine. Ischial tuberosity. Pelvis: Posterior Ligaments Posterior sacrospinous ligaments. Sacrotuberous ligaments. Sacrospinous ligaments. Figure 3.3. Pelvis: Medial Surface Iliac fossa: Attachment surface for iliacus muscle. Arcuate line. Auricular surface: Articulates with auricular surface of sacrum. Pubic symphysis. Sacrum Consists of 5 fused vertebrae. Wing-like processes of each vertebra = alae: For attachment to ilium. Lip of body of first sacral vertebra = sacral promontory. Sacrum Posterior crests (Fig. 4.5): Median crest: Fused spinous processes. Intermediate crests: Fused articular (zygopophyseal) processes. Lateral crests: Fused transverse processes. Sacral hiatus. Lateral Pelvic Attachments Medial Pelvic Attachments Femur: Proximal Anterior Head. Neck. Greater trochanter. Lesser trochanter. Intertrochanteric line: Low ridge connecting two trochanters. Proximal Femur Femur: Proximal Posterior Head. Neck. Greater trochanter. Lesser trochanter: Projects backwards and medially. Femur: Proximal Posterior Intertrochanteric ridge: High ridge connecting two trochanters. Has quadrate tubercle: Partial site of attachment for quadratus femoris muscle. Proximal Femur Femur: Distal Anterior Medial and lateral condyles. Medial and lateral epicondyles. Patellar surface: Smooth, crescent surface between condyles. Adductor tubercle: Small bump on medial epicondyle. Site of partial attachment of adductor magnus. Femur: Distal Posterior Medial and lateral condyles. Medial and lateral epicondyles. Popliteal surface: Smooth, triangular surface superior to condyles. Intercondylar fossa: Forms part of posterior boundary of popliteal fossa. Distal Femur Femur: Posterior Surface Linea aspera Lateral boundary: Is a continuation of: Gluteal tuberosity. Inferiorly becomes: Lateral supracondylar line. Medial boundary: Is a continuation of: Pectineal line. Inferiorly becomes: Medial supracondylar line. Tibia: Anterior Proximal Medial and lateral condyles. Tuberosity. Tubercles of intercondylar eminence. Tibia: Posterior Proximal Medial and lateral condyles. Tubercles of intercondylar eminence. Articular facet for fibula: On inferior surface of lateral condyle. Soleal line: Shallow, rough ridge curving down from lateral condyle. Tibia: Distal Anterior distal surface: Medial malleolus. Lateral distal surface: Fibular notch. Fibula Lies lateral to tibia. Function: Involved in ankle joint. Muscle attachment. Proximal end: Head. Apex (styloid process). Articular surface (facet) for lateral condyle of tibia. Fibula Distal end: Lateral malleolus: With articular surface for talus. Note: Both tibia and fibula have interosseous borders: Face each other when the two bones are articulated. Site of attachment of interosseous membrane.