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Organic Chemistry
Chapter 22
I. Organic Compounds
A. Organic Compounds: covalently bonded
compounds containing carbon (except
carbonates and oxides, such as Na2CO3 , CO, or
CO2 are considered inorganic)
B. Catenation: the covalent bonding of an
element to itself to form chains or rings
C. Hydrocarbons: are composed of only
carbon and hydrogen; they are the simplest
organic compounds
D. Compounds that have the same molecular formula
but different structures are called isomers
1. Structural isomers: atoms are bonded
together in different orders
Example:
Butane
methylpropane (board)
2. Geometric isomers: the order of atom
bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms
in space is different
Example:
Cis
Trans (on the board)
II. Hydrocarbons
A. Alkanes: hydrocarbons with only single bonds
1. Formula: CnH2n+2
B. Cycloalkanes: alkanes in which the carbon
atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic structure
1. Formula: CnH2n
2. Example: cyclobutane (on the board)
C. Carbon-atom chain prefixes:
1 = meth-
6 = hex-
2 = eth-
7 = hept-
3 = prop-
8 = oct-
4 = but-
9 = non-
5 = pent-
10 = dec-
D. Alkane Nomenclature
1. Name the parent hydrocarbon (with prefix and suffix)
2. Add the names of the alkyl groups (put prefix of di =2,
tri =3, tetra = 4 if more than one of the alkyl groups)
3. Number the carbon atoms in the parent hydrocarbon
(start numbering from the side that will give the lowest
number)
4. Insert the position number in front of the alkyl group
name
5. Add any punctuations needed (commas between
numbers, and hyphens between position numbers and
names)
Example from the board:
E. Alkane Properties
F. Alkenes: are hydrocarbons that contain double
covalent bonds
1. Formula: CnH2n
2. Naming: the parent hydrocarbon must contain
the double bond; number the position of the
double bond and place that number immediately
before the name of the parent hydrocarbon, which
ends in –ene
Example from the board:
G. Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with triple
covalent bonds (name ends in –yne, same
naming as alkenes for numbers and alkyl
groups)
1. Formula: CnH2n-2
2. Example from the board: draw 3-methyl1-butyne