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European History ANCIENT GREECE Geography overview: Greece is shaped so it surrounds the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of Greek islands were connected by the sea, which caused most Greeks to become master fisherman and traders. 75% or ¾ of Greece is covered with the mountains, the tallest = Mt. Olympus (home of the gods). These mountains divide Greece into regions and the rugged terrain made travel and communication difficult. (It could take a week to travel 60 miles – that’s about how far Seaside is). The land also was difficult to farm, so Greece’s food supply was not too great resulting in a small population. Land played a major role in the political life of Greece, they never united but formed City-states instead. City-state: independent city. Its own leader, govt, customs and military. They contained a city, wall and surrounding countryside. Bronze Age Civilizations: There were two early Greek cultures that arose, one on the island of Crete and the other on the Greek mainland. The time of these cultures ranges from about 3500-1200 BC. The later Greek culture of the classical period was built upon these two earlier cultures. - The Minoans: 3500-2000 BC o Settled on the island of Crete about 3500 BC from the Middle East o Known for their large palaces with numerous rooms & labyrinths. o Also known for their fresco art o They did not have walls around their cities, they didn’t fear attacks o Sports/Entertainment: bull leaping (religious??) and boxing o They traded with many of the other Aegean islands - The Mycenaeans: 2000-1200 BC o Settled on Greek mainland about 2000 BC from Europe o Named after their leading city: Mycenae o Not united, each city was a kingdom unto itself o Lots of wealth in Bronze age kingdom o The cities were built to withstand any attack Very tall, thick walls made of stone Each ruled by a warrior king Palaces acted as forts, therefore heavily armed **War of this Period: Trojan War: Mycenaean Greeks vs. Troy(city in Asia Minor) – 1250 BC Legendary war fought after a Trojan prince kidnapped Helen from Sparta. After years of inconclusive battles, the Greeks built a wooden horse & hid soldiers inside while claiming it was a gift for the Trojans. The horse was wheeled into Troy & when night fell the soldiers exited the horse, opened the gates of Troy & their comrades entered to take the city. ** Iron Age begins: 1200 BC The Dark Ages: 1200-750 BC - About 1400 BC Minoan civilization fell. About 1200 BC Mycenaean fell. About 1200 BC Mycenaean palaces were attacked & burned The Dorians moved into this region – they were relatives to Mycenaean Greeks Dorians were less advanced than Mycenaean Greeks o Pottery & tools showed a lack of ability o Not good traders o Writing is lost during this time **Dorians usher in a dark age: progress stopped, no reading, writing or trade. Dark Ages: 1150-750 BC - ** Homer, the blind poet composes the Iliad & Odyssey during this period. ** The Olympics begin during this period, 776 BC. The Period of City-States - - City-state rose at end of Dark Ages: 750 BC Each controlled about 50-500 square miles of territory Citizens shared discussion of public matters. o Only adult free men could be citizens City-state in Greece was known for open debate of topics. Change in military membership: now ordinary men; rich & poor could serve. Iron made it possible, it’s cheap so most could afford iron weapons. Every citizen was expected to be a soldier for his city-state (polis). o These soldiers were hoplites: fought on foot o A hoplite is a citizen soldier o The Phalanx – battle technique – the human tank 2 major city-states: Athens & Sparta Sparta: located in south. Military state, largest city-state Athens: located northeast of Sparta. First democracy Athens had more buildings and art than Sparta Persian Wars 1st invasion: King Darius I (Persia) invaded Greece in 490 BC with 25,000 troops; Athenians had 10,000. Darius lost 6400, Athenians lost 192. 2nd invasion: Xerxes (Persia) had 1.7 million troops. 3 decisive battles. Overall Greeks won. After Persian wars: Delian League formed. 140 city-states involved. Purpose: to ward off another Persian invasion through mutual defense. Athens was the leader, which made Sparta jealous of Athens’ position of power. Golden Age of Greece: 480-430 BC - - - - - Arts of drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, science reached new heights Centered in Athens Pericles: famous leader of Athens who helped create & sustain Golden Age o Ruled from 461-429 BC o Most of great buildings in Athens under his rule – Parthenon is one Rise of Classical Art: art that shows balance, order, proportion. Realistic art. o Column was important to Greek architecture o 3 kinds of columns: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian Doric: simple Ionic: scrollwork Corinthian: most artistic, ornate Drama: theatrical production o Tragedy: strong men & women whose downfall is their ego. o Beautiful theaters built to stage these productions. o Great entertainment for citizens. Peloponnesian War: 430-404 BC o Fought between Athens & Sparta o Sparta won o Athens forced to surrender because of: Plague hit Athens killing many including Pericles Disastrous loss at Syracuse. Alexander the Great Creates an Empire: o Philip II of Macedonia: king conquered most of Greece in 338 BC o Was assassinated, and son Alexander took over at 20 yrs. old o Alexander’s goal: Conquer Persia, spread Greek culture. o 334 & 333 BC Alex beat Darius III (Persia) & got control of top & bottom of Asia Minor o 332 BC – took Egypt o By 327 BC – reached Indus River o By 323 BC – Alex died at 32 yrs. old **He spread Greek culture wherever he conquered. Art, architecture, philosophy, etc. spread throughout east. **Greek culture mixed with local eastern culture to form a new culture called Hellenism.