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Transcript
European History
ANCIENT GREECE
Geography overview:
Greece is shaped so it surrounds the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of Greek islands were connected by the sea, which caused
most Greeks to become master fisherman and traders.
75% or ¾ of Greece is covered with the mountains, the tallest = Mt. Olympus (home of the gods). These mountains divide Greece
into regions and the rugged terrain made travel and communication difficult. (It could take a week to travel 60 miles – that’s about
how far Seaside is). The land also was difficult to farm, so Greece’s food supply was not too great resulting in a small population.
Land played a major role in the political life of Greece, they never united but formed City-states instead.
City-state: independent city. Its own leader, govt, customs and military. They contained a city, wall and surrounding
countryside.
Bronze Age Civilizations:
There were two early Greek cultures that arose, one on the island of Crete and the other on the Greek mainland. The time of these
cultures ranges from about 3500-1200 BC. The later Greek culture of the classical period was built upon these two earlier cultures.
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The Minoans: 3500-2000 BC
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Settled on the island of Crete about 3500 BC from the Middle East
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Known for their large palaces with numerous rooms & labyrinths.
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Also known for their fresco art
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They did not have walls around their cities, they didn’t fear attacks
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Sports/Entertainment: bull leaping (religious??) and boxing
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They traded with many of the other Aegean islands
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The Mycenaeans: 2000-1200 BC
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Settled on Greek mainland about 2000 BC from Europe
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Named after their leading city: Mycenae
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Not united, each city was a kingdom unto itself
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Lots of wealth in Bronze age kingdom
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The cities were built to withstand any attack
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Very tall, thick walls made of stone
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Each ruled by a warrior king
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Palaces acted as forts, therefore heavily armed
**War of this Period: Trojan War: Mycenaean Greeks vs. Troy(city in Asia Minor) – 1250 BC
Legendary war fought after a Trojan prince kidnapped Helen from Sparta. After years of inconclusive battles, the Greeks built
a wooden horse & hid soldiers inside while claiming it was a gift for the Trojans. The horse was wheeled into Troy & when night fell
the soldiers exited the horse, opened the gates of Troy & their comrades entered to take the city.
** Iron Age begins: 1200 BC
The Dark Ages: 1200-750 BC
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About 1400 BC Minoan civilization fell. About 1200 BC Mycenaean fell.
About 1200 BC Mycenaean palaces were attacked & burned
The Dorians moved into this region – they were relatives to Mycenaean Greeks
Dorians were less advanced than Mycenaean Greeks
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Pottery & tools showed a lack of ability
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Not good traders
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Writing is lost during this time
**Dorians usher in a dark age: progress stopped, no reading, writing or trade.
Dark Ages: 1150-750 BC
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** Homer, the blind poet composes the Iliad & Odyssey during this period.
** The Olympics begin during this period, 776 BC.
The Period of City-States
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City-state rose at end of Dark Ages: 750 BC
Each controlled about 50-500 square miles of territory
Citizens shared discussion of public matters.
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Only adult free men could be citizens
City-state in Greece was known for open debate of topics.
Change in military membership: now ordinary men; rich & poor could serve.
Iron made it possible, it’s cheap so most could afford iron weapons.
Every citizen was expected to be a soldier for his city-state (polis).
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These soldiers were hoplites: fought on foot
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A hoplite is a citizen soldier
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The Phalanx – battle technique – the human tank
2 major city-states: Athens & Sparta
Sparta: located in south. Military state, largest city-state
Athens: located northeast of Sparta. First democracy
Athens had more buildings and art than Sparta
Persian Wars
1st invasion: King Darius I (Persia) invaded Greece in 490 BC with 25,000 troops; Athenians had 10,000. Darius lost
6400, Athenians lost 192.
2nd invasion: Xerxes (Persia) had 1.7 million troops. 3 decisive battles. Overall Greeks won.
After Persian wars: Delian League formed. 140 city-states involved. Purpose: to ward off another Persian invasion
through mutual defense. Athens was the leader, which made Sparta jealous of Athens’ position of power.
Golden Age of Greece: 480-430 BC
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Arts of drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, science reached new heights
Centered in Athens
Pericles: famous leader of Athens who helped create & sustain Golden Age
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Ruled from 461-429 BC
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Most of great buildings in Athens under his rule – Parthenon is one
Rise of Classical Art: art that shows balance, order, proportion. Realistic art.
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Column was important to Greek architecture
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3 kinds of columns: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
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Doric: simple
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Ionic: scrollwork
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Corinthian: most artistic, ornate
Drama: theatrical production
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Tragedy: strong men & women whose downfall is their ego.
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Beautiful theaters built to stage these productions.
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Great entertainment for citizens.
Peloponnesian War: 430-404 BC
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Fought between Athens & Sparta
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Sparta won
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Athens forced to surrender because of:
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Plague hit Athens killing many including Pericles
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Disastrous loss at Syracuse.
Alexander the Great Creates an Empire:
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Philip II of Macedonia: king conquered most of Greece in 338 BC
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Was assassinated, and son Alexander took over at 20 yrs. old
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Alexander’s goal: Conquer Persia, spread Greek culture.
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334 & 333 BC Alex beat Darius III (Persia) & got control of top & bottom of Asia Minor
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332 BC – took Egypt
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By 327 BC – reached Indus River
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By 323 BC – Alex died at 32 yrs. old
**He spread Greek culture wherever he conquered. Art, architecture, philosophy, etc. spread throughout east.
**Greek culture mixed with local eastern culture to form a new culture called Hellenism.