Download 1-4 Vitamins, Water, and Minerals

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Vitamins
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Definition: noncaloric, organic nutrients needed in small amounts to
maintain proper health and functioning of the body.
13 total. Named in the order discovered
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Vit A
B complex group (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6,
vitamin B-12 and folate)
Vit C
Vit D
Vit E
Vit K
Vitamins
Lipid Soluble – A, D, E, K
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Obtained from fats and oils in foods,
mostly plant sources
Stored in liver and body fat until needed
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Pro: can go for weeks without deficiency
Con: excesses may accumulate
toxicity usually only with supplements
Water soluble – B complex group, C
• Obtained from plant and animal
sources (mostly B complex)
• Not stored in significant amounts
• Easily lost in cooking water and
damaged by heat of cooking
• Easily lost in urine
• Toxicities not possible from food
sources… only with supplements
Do vitamins cure illnesses?
• The only illness cured by a vitamin is the illness
caused by a deficiency of that vitamin.
Can illnesses be prevented by vitamins?
• If obtained from vitamin rich foods – Yes,
especially cancers
• If obtained by vitamin supplements – No, maybe
D3 [Tuft’s University (?), analyzed last 50 years
of studies]
Is athletic performance improved by vitamin
supplements?
• If eating a variety of vitamin rich foods – No
• If vegetarian, a possible benefit from B complex
supplement
Water
Adequate water reduces
your chances of:
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Fatigue
UTIs
Migraine Headaches
Gallstones
Kidney stones
Constipation
Heat Exhaustion/Stroke
Low BP
Dental disease
Heart attack
Stroke
Glaucoma
Etc. etc.
Progressive Effects of Water Loss:
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1% loss = thirst
5% loss = strength and endurance declines
10% loss = blurred vision and mental confusion (LOC)
20% loss = death
So how much is enough?
Simple question –
No simple answer.
Amount you need affected by:
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Environment
Physical activity
Food choices
Good Rule of thumb:
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A full glass w each meal
A full glass bt meals
Urine clear / pale yellow
Drink b4 you get thirsty
 intake w physical activity
Can U drink too much water?
Yes but is rare.
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Common in endurance sports
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Hyponatremia
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Common in CHF patients
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Pitting edema
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Pulmonary edema
Don’t like to drink water?
60-90% is common
Minerals
Definition: noncaloric, inorganic nutrients needed in small amounts
to maintain proper health and functioning of the body.
Major Minerals (a.k.a. Macrominerals) – those needed in larger
amounts
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride,
and sulfur.
Trace minerals – those needed in minute quantities
Iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and
selenium.
Calcium and ???
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Osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts
Common sites of fractures due to
osteoporosis
Common sites of osteoporotic fractures
Osteoporosis
Prevention:
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Be physically active as long as you can
Don’t smoke
Eat calcium rich foods
Dairy, Sardines, Dark leafy greens (like spinach, kale,
turnips, and collard greens); Fortified cereals (such as
Total, Raisin Bran, Corn Flakes); Fortified OJ, soybeans,
Enriched breads, grains, and waffles
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Eat vitamin D rich foods
Fish, sea foods, fortified milk and cereals
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Get sunshine for Vit. D
15 min/day
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Avoid carbonated beverages (they leach
minerals from bones)
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Goal: Build up a reserve of bone matrix
now! in your 20s and 30s and 40s