* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Colonizing North America
Document related concepts
English explorer Henry Hudson made four voyages in search of a northwest passage. After two unsuccessful voyages, Hudson’s English backers gave up on him. However, in 1609, the Dutch financed his third voyage, during which he reached New York and explored the river that today bears his name. After Hudson, European countries shifted their focus from finding a northwest passage to exploring the land itself. Europeans began to consider exploiting the resources of the land for profit. At the time, European leaders supported an economic theory called mercantilism. By establishing colonies, European nations could increase their own power and wealth. What impact did the establishment of French and Dutch colonies in North America have on Native Americans? In the early 1600s, England, France, and the Netherlands sent explorers to North America and staked claims to land there. Their activities had grave consequences for the Native Americans who lived in North America. In 1603, Samuel de Champlain made the first of 11 voyages to explore and map the lands along the St. Lawrence River. In 1604, he established the first settlement—a trading post—in the colony of New France in present-day Nova Scotia. In 1608, Champlain established the settlement of Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. Champlain gave the French an influence in the region that lasted 150 years, and other explorers followed his lead. By 1670, French missionary Jacques Marquette had founded two missions along the Great Lakes, in present-day Michigan. The colony of New France developed quite differently than did New Spain. The Spanish, who wanted gold and silver, forced Native Americans into harsh labor. The French, who wanted fish and furs, traded with Native Americans for the animal skins they sold in Europe. Champlain convinced Native Americans to bring pelts to French trading posts. Trading posts such as Quebec City and Montreal became busy centers of commerce. Coureurs de bois acquired pelts from Native Americans, and many of them married Native American women and started families. Dutch land claims in North America were based on Henry Hudson’s explorations of the Hudson River. In 1610, Dutch traders began trading with Native Americans in the Hudson River valley. The trade was so profitable that the Dutch West India Company established a colony in what the Dutch called “New Netherland.” New Netherland New Albany New Amsterdam In 1624, about 300 settlers arrived from the Netherlands. Most of them settled at Fort Orange (later renamed New Albany). In 1626, another group settled at the mouth of the Hudson River on land purchased from Native Americans. The colonists named their new home New Amsterdam. By 1653, it had a population of 800. Native Americans traded fur pelts to the French and Dutch in exchange for goods such as cloth, iron pots and tools, and guns. Ultimately, however, the fur trade had grave effects on Native Americans. disease war lost food and land Also, the French and Dutch made alliances with different tribes, who were enemies. The French were allied with the Hurons, and the Dutch were allied with the Iroquois. The Iroquois attacked the Hurons with guns they got from the Dutch. In addition, the fur trade caused over-trapping of animals and weakened the food chain on which Native Americans depended. As the furbearing animals disappeared, the Native Americans became less valuable trading partners to the colonists. Colonists began to covet Native American land instead. New Netherland kept English settlers from moving westward. New New York Netherland English settlers So in 1664, English forces seized New Netherland and renamed it New York. How did the English set up their first colonies? England was a monarchy, but the powers of royalty were limited by law and by Parliament. The king granted charters to groups of people who wanted to establish colonies. The Colonies would provide new markets for English products and raw materials for English industries. In the late 1500s, the English began to establish colonies on the east coast of North America. Some colonists came for land, others for gold, and still others for religious freedom. In 1607, England’s King James I granted a charter to a group of merchants to establish a colony called Virginia in North America. The merchants, who formed the Virginia Company of London, were eager to gain a share of the wealth of the Americas. The first colonists—about 100 men—arrived in Virginia in the spring of 1607. They built a fort they called Jamestown, which proved to be England’s first permanent settlement in North America. Jamestown barely survived its first year because many colonists: • died of diseases such as malaria • wanted to look for gold, not farm Local Native Americans, led by a chief named Powhatan, gave the colonists some food. By the spring of 1608, only 38 of the original (100) colonists were still alive. That fall, John Smith was sent from England to lead the colony. Under his firm leadership, the colonists planted crops and built buildings. Meanwhile, hundreds of new colonists— including the first English women to settle in Jamestown—arrived. To get more food, Smith raided Native American villages, which angered Powhatan. In the fall of 1609, Smith returned to England after being injured in an explosion. With Smith gone, conditions quickly worsened. Powhatan decided to drive the English away, and he began by refusing to give them more food. The terrible winter of 1609–1610 is called the “starving time,” because by the spring, only 60 colonists were still alive. Despite the hard times, Jamestown began to prosper. Jamestown Survives Efforts of the Virginia Company Efforts of the Colonists The company sent new colonists, offered free land to existing colonists, and sent new leaders to restore order in the colony. The colonists found a dependable source of income to sustain the colony: tobacco. By the 1580s, smoking tobacco had become popular in parts of Europe. The colonists’ success in growing and selling tobacco drew new colonists from England. The colonies developed a tradition of representative government. In 1619, Virginia’s lawmaking body, the House of Burgesses, was elected. The House of Burgesses marked the start of representative government in North America. In 1619, a Dutch ship arrived from the West Indies and sold 20 Africans to the Virginia colonists as slaves. In the early days of the colony, enslaved people had a chance to earn their freedom after working a certain number of years. Permanent slavery for Africans was not established in Virginia until the late 1600s. In the 1500s, English subjects were expected to support the Church of England, and they could be punished if they had different religious beliefs. The Separatists wanted to separate from the Church of England and practice Christianity in their own way. Between 1607 and 1609, several groups of Separatists left England and settled in Holland. In 1620, one group of Separatists decided to leave Holland and settle in Virginia. The Pilgrims sailed for Virginia aboard a ship called the Mayflower. A storm blew them off course, and so they landed in present-day Massachusetts. The Pilgrims called their new home Plymouth. Before leaving the ship, 41 men signed the Mayflower Compact, a document that called for a representative government. Mayflower Compact The Mayflower Compact was the first document in which American colonists claimed a right to govern themselves. During the winter of 1620–1621, half of the Pilgrims died from hunger or disease. In the spring, a local chief gave the Pilgrims food, and another Native American named Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to plant crops. In the fall of 1621, the Pilgrims set aside a day to give thanks, which is now celebrated as the first Thanksgiving celebration.