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Faces of Civil Rights
Malcolm X
Civil Rights Leader
Born Malcolm Little May 19, 1925 in
Omaha, Nebraska.
He changed his name to Malcolm X
because he thought Little was a slave
Adopted Islam as his religion while he
was in prison.
At first he believed blacks and whites
should stay separate.
After a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm
changed his mind and thought all
people could work together.
Because of this, he left the Nation of
He was assassinated February 21, 1965
while giving a speech.
Dr. Martin Luther King with Malcolm X.
Rosa Parks
Born Rosa Louise McCauley Parks in
Made history in 1955 when she refused
to give up her seat on a bus for a white
She was arrested.
The Montgomery black community
launched a bus boycott.
She died in 2005.
Rosa’s arrest photo.
Rosa later in life.
Thurgood Marshall
Civil Rights Lawyer and Supreme
Court Justice.
Born in Baltimore, Maryland on July 2,
Thurgood Marshall was the grandson
of a slave.
Between 1938 and 1961, he presented
more than 30 civil rights cases before
the Supreme Court. He won 29 of them.
His most important case was Brown v.
Board of Education of Topeka (1954),
which ended segregation in public
In 1967, he becomes first African
American in the U.S. Supreme Court.
He died in 1993.
The Little Rock Nine
A group of African-American students
who were enrolled in Little Rock
Central High School in 1957.
Several white people physically block
the black students from entering the
The whites were helped by the
Arkansas National Guard and Arkansas
Governor Orval Faubus.
By the end of September 1957, the nine
were admitted to Little Rock Central
High under the protection of the U.S.
But they were still called names and
spit on by many of the white students.
Bottom row, left to right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean
Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top row, left to right:
Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta
Walls, Daisy Bates (NAACP President), Ernest Green
Robert Moses
Educator and activist
Born in Harlem, New York, January 23,
He studied philosophy at Harvard and
obtained a teaching certificate.
He began working with civil rights
activists in 1960.
He was a field secretary for the Student
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
By 1964 Moses had become CoDirector of the Council of Federated
Organizations (COFO), an organization
for all the major civil rights groups in
In 1982 he received a MacArthur
Fellowship, and used the money to
create the Algebra Project, a foundation
devoted to improving minority
education in math.
James Bevel
Reverend, activist, and politician
Born in Ittabena, Mississippi, on
October 19, 1936.
Ordained in the Baptist ministry in
1959, Bevel pastored a church in
Dixon, Tennessee, from 1959 to 1961.
Worked a lot with Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr.
Participated in the 1960-61 Nashville
Sit-In Movement.
The 1961 Freedom Rides,
He directed the 1961 Nashville Open
Theater Movement, and co-initiated the
Mississippi Freedom Movement.
Bevel is still alive and working in
Washington D.C.
John Lewis and Hosea Williams
Both men worked a lot with Dr. Martin
Luther King Jr.
Williams was part of the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference
Lewis was the Chairman of the Student
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
They led the first march on Selma,
Alabama to help with the voter
registration program there on March 7,
Williams was beaten unconscious,
leaving him with a fractured skull and a
severe concussion.
Lewis also suffered a skull fracture.
58 out of 600 people were treated for
injuries that day.
John Lewis and Hosea Williams
John F. Kennedy
U.S. Congressman, Senator, and
Born May 29, 1917, Brookline,
John F. Kennedy was president during
the 1960's Civil Rights Movement.
He helped pass laws to make sure all
Blacks could vote and get a good
education. These laws ended
segregation in schools, jobs,
restaurants, theaters, and much, much
Assassinated November 22, 1963
(aged 46), in Dallas, Texas
John F. Kennedy greets Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and
other civil rights leaders at the White House. Photo by
Abbie Rowe, courtesy of the National Archives.