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Poetry Terms Handbook By: Mrs. Houghland Turn the page! Turn to the inside page. Elements Of Poetry Personification • Words that give an animal, thing, or idea human qualities. • Ex. The wind screamed as it blew by the house. Turn the page! Imagery Hyperbole • Poets choose words carefully to create strong images or feelings. One of the elements of poetry is imagery. Imagery is defined as concrete details that appeal to the sense of sight, sound, touch, smell and taste, or to internal feelings. • An exaggeration! Hyperbole helps to emphasize your writing by making a point through extreme exaggeration. • Example: A Dream is Like a River lesson. What images were created from the lyrics in the song? http://www.lyrics007.com/Garth%20Brooks%20Lyrics/The%20Ri ver%20Lyrics.htm l • Example: I almost died laughing. Turn the page! Simile: Metaphor: • Writers use similes to add excitement and interest to their stories and poems. Similes describe something. Writers use similes as a comparison between two unlikely things using like or as to make a connection between the two things being compared. • Example: “Life is like a box of chocolates.” ________ is compared to_______ • • Writers use metaphors to make their writing more interesting. Metaphors compare how two things are different in most ways, but alike in one way. However, a metaphor does not use like or as, it states that something is something else. An exaggeration. Example: “She was a mess waiting to happen.” The metaphor compares ________ to a ________ because _____________. Turn the page! Alliteration: • Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words or within words. (Tongue twisters). • Example: “Maggie made my mango milkshake.” Onomatopoeia: • The use of words whose sounds suggest their meaning or use. • Example: Swoosh! Bop! Wham! Turn the page! Leave this page blank! Second Title Page. How A Poem works. Turn the page! Meter • The measured arrangement of words in poetry that identifies the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Rhythm • A series of stressed and unstressed sounds. Turn the page! Rhyme Scheme End Rhyme • The similarity of end sounds using alphabetical lettering that changes with each new sound. • Ex. The Rhyme scheme for a Sonnet is: • ABAB • CDCD EFEF • GG • End words that share a sound. • Ex. Hopping bunnies and little moles, Both can make their homes in holes. Turn the page! Stanza Refrain • A division of a poem, similar to a pararagraph. • A phrase or verse repeated at intervals throughout a song or poem. Turn the page! Leave this page blank! Third Section Title Page! Types of Poems Turn the page! Lyric Poetry that expresses subjective thoughts and feelings often in songlike form. Example: Skater Boy, by: Avril Lavigne. Your poem! • Write your own Lyric in this space. Turn the Page! Ballad • • • • • • A narrative poem often of folk origin intended to be sung. Simple stanzas usually with a recurrent refrain. Example: Verses of four lines with a rhyming pattern: Abab Abbb Acbc Repetition often found in ballads. Lines can be used over again with a one word change. Your Poem Write your own Ballad here. Turn the page! Concrete Poem • Create a concrete poem by arranging words pictorially on a page or by combining art and writing. Words, phrases, and sentences can be written in the shape of an object, or word pictures can be inserted within poems that are written left to right and top to bottom on a sheet of paper. • Example: “George Washington Monument” Your poem. • Write your poem here. Turn the Page! Cinquains • A cinquain is a five-line poem that was invented by Adelaide Crapsey. She was an American poet who took her inspiration from Japanese haiku and tanka. Cinquains are particularly vivid in their imagery and are meant to convey a certain mood or emotion. Your Poem Turn the Page! Limerick Your Poem! A humorous nonsensical verse of five lines with aabba rhyme scheme. Example: There was a young lady whose eyes were unique as to the color and size when she opened them wide. People all turned aside, and started away in surprise. • Write your own Limerick here. Turn the page! Ode Your Poem! An ode is a long lyric that is deep in feeling and rich in poetic Devices and imagery. Write your own Ode here. Example: Ode to the Seventh Grade Turn the Page! Sonnet Your poem! A 14-line poem, usually in iambic pentameter with fixed rhyme. Usually a love poem. Imabic: Stress is on the second syllable. Example: Good-bye! Pentameter: 10 syllables per line. Example: ..\Sonnet_poem.aspx_ID=472128.p df Oh how I love thee let me count the ways. Rhyme scheme: abab/cdcd/efef/gg Turn the page! Free Verse Free verse does not have a set pattern of rhyme or rhythm. There are no rules about line length in free verse. You try to keep the words that belong together on the same line, but, sometimes the poet will break these words if he/she wants to create a visual shape to support the poem's message, or feeling that the poet wishes the reader to experience. . When free verse is read aloud the reader can hear the rhythm of the words that the poet has used in his/her poem. Think of it as spoken music. http://www.edu.pe.ca/stjean/playing%20with%20poetry/Hi ckey/freeexamples.htm • Topic Anything and everything can be the topic of a free verse lyrical poem. The poem can tell a story, describe a person, animal, feeling or object. They can serious, sad, funny or educational. What ever subject that appeals to the poet can end up in free verse • Language The poet attempts to describe his/her subject with language that shows, not tells. For example, instead of writing " We had so much fun today.", the poet would write "They wore smiles all the way home."