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Key Concept 3.2:
Continuity &
Innovations of
State Forms &
Their Interactions
Period 3: 600 – 1450 CE
Who were the Mongols?
Genghis Khan
United the
Mongol tribes
 1206- “The
Great Khan”
– Leader of
all Mongols
Genghis Khan
Two genius ideas:
 Promotion
based on merit not family
 Brought people of lower classes into his
tribe and executed the leaders of
conquered clans
Peasants LOVED him
Genghis Khan
One failure:
 Did
NOT create a single political unit out of
all his empires
 Who does this remind you of???
 Alexander
the Great
Four Khanates
 Yuan
(Khanate of the
Great Khan)China
 Chagatai
KhanateCentral Asia
 Ilkhanate- Persia
 Khanate of the
Golden HordeRussia
Mongol Military Power
Horses and Archery
 Learned
how to lay siege to fortified
 Learned how to use gunpowder
Mongols in Russia
 Kievan
 Considered
“birthplace” of Russia
 Trade & Agriculture center
 Converted to Byzantine Christianity
 Fell to Mongols in 1240
Russia Under Mongol Rule
Khanate of the Golden Horde
 Serfdom arose as peasants gave up
land for protection
 Moscow benefited by acting as tribute
collector for Mongols
 Mongol rule isolated Russia from
Byzantium and Europe
 This
isolation will influence Russia for
Mongols in Persia
Siege of Baghdad
 800,000 people
killed- including the
Abbasid Caliph
 Ends
500 year
Islamic dynasty
Added to the
Mongols and China
Kublai Khan
 Completed
conquest of
China that
Genghis Khan
 First
China has
been unified
since end of
the Tang
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
Centralized government and
 Shortest of the Chinese dynasties
 Maintained a separateness from
the population and used foreigners
(Marco Polo) to staff bureaucracy
 This
leads to their downfall
Were the Mongols Awesome?
Reinvigorated Trade
 Pax
Mongolica & Silk Roads
Increased communication in Eurasia
 Yam
Introduction of new foods
 Rice
becomes staple in Persian diet
Cross-cultural pollination
 Forcibly
relocated people useful to them
(especially administrators)
Religious tolerance
Were the Mongols Awful?
Genghis Khan’s
definition of
 Brutal Conquerors
 Empires did not
 Not interested in
art or architecture
 Maybe responsible
for the Black Death