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Transcript
Radio Navigation
Effective use of NAV instruments
HDG 105° DME20
ALT = 5000ft
Radial 140
Incercept: 345° CRS TO
Do I turn left or right?
Do I fly heading
315° or 015°?
Radio Navigation
For a successful navigation we need to:
•Understand how to use a map
•Understand the function of an OBI/RMI
•Understand the terminology
Only after we can be fully able to navigate
How to use a map
How to use a map
Understand the RMI
Understand the RMI
Understand the RMI
Terminology
Terminology
Terminology
Terminology
Basic Rule for navigation
• Consider the compass instrument as a
map.
• (needle) arrow ALWAYS FALL (RMI).
• (needle) tail ALWAYS RISE (RMI).
• The station is ALWAYS IN THE CENTER.
• The aircraft is ALWAYS ON THE TAIL.
Basic Rule for navigation
• Omni Bearing
Indicator
Using OBI for navigation
• Omni Bearing
Indicator
• Let’s remove
numbers for the
purpose of
exercise
Using OBI for navigation
• I cannot
determine
accurate
position whitout
centering
• Accurate
position is
needed to carry
out accurate
navigation
Using OBI for navigation
• Step 1: center
the instrument.
• It is not
important if it
falls To or From
Using OBI for navigation
• Where is the
station?
Using OBI for navigation
• Where is the
station?
• Always in the
center of the
instrument!
Using OBI for navigation
• Where is the
aircraft?
Using OBI for navigation
• Where is the
aircraft?
• Always on the
tail of the
needle!
• Which one is
the tail?
Using OBI for navigation
• Where is the
aircraft?
• Always on the
tail of the
needle!
• Look at the
pointer
TO/FROM
Using OBI for navigation
• I have no
indication about
the heading of
the aircraft.
• Which radial do
I want to
intercept?
Using OBI for navigation
• Find the route I
want to follow
Using OBI for navigation
• Find the route I
want to follow
Using OBI for navigation
• bring selected
route parallel
from the center
of the
instrument, and
find the desired
heading
Using OBI for navigation
• Now start
turning onto the
new heading
frist.
• Then move the
OBS to select
desired radial.
Using RMI for navigation
• Radio Magnetic
Indicator
Using RMI for navigation
• Radio Magnetic
Indicator
• Let’s remove
numbers for the
purpose of
exercise
Using RMI for navigation
• Where is the
station?
Using RMI for navigation
• Where is the
aircraft?
Using RMI for navigation
• The heading of
the aircraft is
always upward.
• Now find the
radial to
intercept.
Using RMI for navigation
• Visualise the
range of
possible
headings to
intercept as
desired
Using RMI for navigation
• Note that in this
example a 90°
intercept would
bring us
intercepting the
reciprocal
radial.
• If radial has to
be inbound,
leave adequate
turn distance
Using RMI for navigation
• Once selected a
heading turn
onto that
heading, the
RMI allow
monitoring of
intercept
progress
Using RMI for navigation
• Coming back on
numbers, let’s
monitor this
intercept
• I turn 45° on the
left, new
heading 325°
Using RMI for navigation
• Coming back to
basic rules:
• Arrows always
falls,
• Tails always
rise.
• Will the needle
move toward
the blue cross?
Using RMI for navigation
• Yes, the aircraft
is leaving the
station behind
on the left wing:
• Arrows always
falls,
• Tails always
rise.
Using RMI for navigation
• To intercept the
radial inbound,
shall I turn left
or right?
Advanced Use of RMI
• I read DME20,
and wish to
intercept radial
220 at DME 10
• From such point
I will join a left
DME10 arc until
radial 090
• Can you see
the intended
track?
Advanced Use of RMI
• Draw distance
circles, my
aircraft is at
20DME.
Advanced Use of RMI
• Draw distance
circles, my
aircraft is at
20DME.
• Find desired
Radial
Advanced Use of RMI
• Draw distance
circles, my
aircraft is at
20DME.
• Find desired
Radial
• Find desired
DME
Advanced Use of RMI
• Find desired
heading to
reach the point
and see the
subsequent turn
and arc.
Advanced Use of RMI
• Find desired
heading to
reach the point
and see the
subsequent turn
and arc.
Flying DME arcs.
• The direction of the arc as left or right is
referred to the direction of turns once
established in the arc.
Flying DME arcs.
• The direction of
initial turn
depend from the
inbound/outboun
d arrival.
• The arc is flown
as straight
segments of
approximately 10
degrees
Advanced Use of RMI
• Enter the
10NM Arc to
the left.
• Actual DME
read 20NM
Advanced Use of RMI
• Proceed
inbound the
station until
DME reads 10
plus leading
distance.
• Make short
legs of 10
degrees.
Advanced Use of RMI
• Once the DME
reads 10 keep
yourself abeam
the station
Advanced Use of RMI
• If DME is
correct the
abeam will
fluctuate from
5° above and
below
Advanced Use of RMI
• If DME read
more than
10NM (i.e.
wind) you will
keep yourself
in a position
that allow to reenter the arc,
still turn every
10 radials.
Advanced Use of RMI
• If DME read
less than
10NM (i.e.
wind) you will
keep yourself
in a position
that allow to reexit the arc,
still turn every
10 radials.
Advanced Use of RMI
HDG 105° DME20
ALT = 5000ft
Radial 140
Incercept: 345°
CRS TO
Do I turn left or
right?
Do I fly heading
315° or 015°?
Advanced Use of RMI
HDG 105° DME20
ALT = 5000ft
Radial 140
Incercept: 345°
CRS TO
Do I turn left or
right?
Do I fly heading
315° or 015°?
Advanced Use of RMI
Advanced Use of RMI
turn left or right?
hdg 315° or 015°?