Download PPT

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Essential Principles of
Lecture 3
Generalized Atomic Structure
Nucleus houses the massive
particles (protons and neutrons)
# Protons = Atomic Number
# Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass
Responsible for mass and density
Electrons lie in orbitals that
surround the nucleus
# Electrons = # Protons
 If not, then it is an ION
Responsible for bonding
Ions are electrically charged particles formed by
the gain or loss of electrons
Cations are positively charged
Anions are negatively charged
Metals are elements that readily form cations
Non-Metals are elements that readily form
Electron Orbitals
Alkali Metals
Alkali Earth Metals
Transition Metals
Other Metals
Noble Gases
Decreasing Atomic Radius
Decreasing Atomic Radius
Electronegativity: measure of an atom’s
ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond
Ionic Bonds
An atom with lower
electro negativity
transfers one or more
electrons to an atom with
higher electronegativity
 Metal with non-metal
Results in charged ions
Oppositely charged ions
are attracted and thereby
form a weak bond
Ionic Bonds
Ions are not actually
“attached” and so bonds
are relatively weak
 Soft minerals
Ions can be attracted by
other charged ions or
 Soluble in water
Covalent Bonds
Two atoms with
approximately equal
electronegativity share
one or more electrons
Results in a merging of
the electron clouds, and
thereby forms a strong
 Hard minerals
Metallic Bonds
Delocalized sharing of
free electrons among a
lattice of metal atoms
with little or no difference
in electronegativity
Results in one continuous
electron cloud
 Soft, malleable
minerals that conduct
both heat and
Natural Bonds Usually Share
Van der Waal’s “Bonds”
Attraction between
atoms, ions or molecules
that have an imbalance in
the distribution of
electrons (dipole)
Fleeting and fluctuating
weak attractions
 Soft minerals with a
low melting point
 Allows for the basal
cleavage in micas