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Importance of Nonverbal Communication - Play an important role in how people interact with one another. Forms of Nonverbal Communication - Facial expressions: anger, sadness, fear, enjoyment, love, surprise, disgust, shame - Eye contact : maintaining, deceiving prolonged, cultural implications - Gesture : learned behaviors, mirroring others, cultural differences - Tone of voice - Posture : confidence, shyness,, tension or relaxation, showing attentiveness to the speaker - Sense of touch ( Haptic) Eye contact establishes the nature of a relationship. - Key characteristics of nonverbal communication Use it when we come into physical contact with other people GESTURES • A gesture is a natural movement of any part of the body that conveys a thought or emotion or reinforce an oral expression. Gestures include the movements of the hands, the face or other parts of the body. Military air marshals use hands and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carries. Disgust Fear Joy Sadness Surprise Anger MOST COMMON GESTURES FROM AROUND THE WORLD GESTURE 1) Wink DESCRIPTION Winking is the most subtle gesture. To wink is closing and opening of eyelid of one eye deliberately to convey a message, signal or suggestion. 2) Frown /Scowl When eyebrows are brought together and the forehead is wrinkled usually indicating worry, displeasure, confusion or concentration. 3) Grin To smile broadly especially indicating amusement or pleasure. 4) Nod Head nodding is used to signify Yes or to acknowledge someone. 5) Shoulder Shrug Shrugging conveys anger or when a person does not know something or doesn't understand something. 6) Thumbs up It is an OK signal used for approval or thumbs down is used for disapproval. 7) Flip off It is quite an obscene gesture. When you make a fist and extend your middle finger. A sort of “F*k you” action. 8) Wave Wave - Move one's hand to and fro in greeting or waving goodbye. Frown /Scowl Grin Wave GESTURES Nod Flip off Thumbs up Shoulder Shrug “Culture hides much more than it reveals, and strangely enough, what it hides, it hides most effectively from its own participants.” (Edward. T Hall) Edward T. Hall ( May 16, 1914- July 20, 2009) - an American anthropologist and crosscultural researcher The Silent Language (1959) outline a broad theory of culture and describe how its rules control people’s lives The Hidden Dimension (1966) Beyond Culture (1976) - “Hide” : that part of culture we don’t notice but follow - Control behaviors in deep and persisting ways and beyond conscious controls of the individual For the American culture : - Not looking at someone’s eyes means wanting to hide evils, feeling guilty because of what they did; therefore, Americans never trust people who don’t look in someone’s eyes because they think these people are unreliable and may be bad ones. For the Russian culture: - A smile in public is not a polite expression; it is both unusual and suspicious. - When Russians see people smile without any reason, they think those people are insincere and have a few screws loose. For Americans : - A smile is automatic indeed and it can be taken to absurdity at times. - American people are very friendly and sociable so they always smile even at strangers. - A smile is typically an expression of pleasure. - A smile may show affection, convey politeness or disguise true feelings. Facial expression Gestures Nonverbal communication Conservational Distance Eye contact Gestures and Body Positioning • A gesture is a characteristic of nonverbal communication in which visible body actions communicate a particular message. • Gestures include movements of the hands, face , or other parts of the body. • The “V” sign • The USA , most parts of the world: victory , peace and love • The USA, Australia , Ireland, New Zealand : slang( if the outside of your hand is facing your target) Thumbs up The UK, The USA: Okay, All right , Brilliant West Africa , Parts of South America , the Middle East: slang Germany: No:1 A-OK The UK, The USA: Everything is good, Great, Absolutely fine France , Belgium: Zero, Worthless Brazil, Turkey, some Mediterranean countries, Russia : Slang Japan: Money Postures -Through postures , one can convey feelings or attitudes. -Meanwhile, one who is sitting in this kind of posture may suggest that she or he is interested in a conservation. -One who is sitting in this kind of posture may demonstrate that she or he is in a powerful position. Facial Expressiveness -Facial Expressions are the key characteristic of nonverbal communication. -Nonverbal communication can communicate happiness, sadness, anger or fear. -A smile may show affection, politeness, or disguise true feelings. It is also a source of confusion cross cultures. -Our faces reveal emotions and attitudes, but we should not attempt to “ read” people from another culture as we would “ read” someone from our own culture. -Every culture has its own way to express its emotion. Don’t just judge through facial expressions to avoid making mistakes. EYE CONTACT -Eye contact, a key characteristic of nonverbal communication. Through eye contact , the eyes could transmit a message of their own. - It simply denotes one person looking directly at another person’s eyes. -Eye contact not only helps to collect visual information from the outside world but also expresses emotions and feelings. It expresses someone’s involvement and attention, too. Eye Contact in Different Cultures: - In the American culture, maintaining eye contact shows respect and interest. - In the English culture, is necessary but too much eye contact makes people uneasy. - In countries such as China and Japan , eye contact is not regarded as an essential social interaction, it is often considered to be inappropriate, instead. CONVERSATIONAL DISTANCE -Conversational distance : the distance people need to feel secure and comfortable when they interact with others. This distance includes “ personal space”, “ interpersonal distance”, “ comfort zone”, and “ body bubble”. -The amount of space changes, depending on the nature of relationships. For example, we tend to stand more closely to our family members than to strangers.