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Economic structure:
The economic structure of Eastern Slovakia is comparable with other EU countries. Most
production is created within the sector of services and industry, There are different types of
industrial production in the East of Slovakia e.g. manufacture of basic metals and fabricated
metal products, manufacture of chemicals, chemical products and man made fibres,
manufacture of electrical and optical equipment, manufacture of food products, beverages
and tobacco products etc.
Traffic infrastructure:
1. Roads:
There are road networks of various level of importance. The road infrastructure in the Eastern
Slovakia is relatively dense with a relatively low representation of higher category roads. The
region is connected from the west to the east and from the north to the south with
neighbouring countries (Poland, Ukraine, Hungary, Austria, Czech Republic).
The international roads crossing the region of Eastern Slovakia are roads included into the Eroads network in compliance with the European Agreement on Main Interantional Arteries.
In the region of eastern Slovakia the following roads cross the region: E50, E71, E371 and
Main European Artery E50 (D1) between the borders of the Czech Republic to Slovakia –
Drietoma – Trenčín – Žilina – prešov – Košice – the border of Slovakia to Ukraine. The 2
biggest towns in the region (Košice and Prešov) are connected by a highway that is a part of
the D1 highway. The west – east route of the D1 highway from Bratislava to Košice through
Prešov is still under construction. It should be ready till 2010 or 2012 – depends on the
European Artery E371 in the segment Prešov – Svidník – Vyšný Komárnik – the border of
Slovakia to Poland.
European Artery E71 in the segment between Košice – Milhosť – the border of Slovakia to
European Artery E571 in the segment Bratislava – Nitra – Zvolen – Lučenec – Rožňava –
Košice (the south route).
The plans are to build the expressways from Košice to the border with Hungary (Milhosť –
Tornyosnémeti) and from Prešov to the borders with Poland (Vyšný Komárnik – Barwinek).
2. Railway:
The railroad infrastructure in the whole Slovakia is out-of-date technology but what is
positive about the railways in Slovakia is its high density which in combination with the high
density of railway stations safeguards good accessibility of passenger and transport.
International traffic corridors in the region of Eastern Slovakia include the following tracks:
C – E40. Ostrava – state border between Czech Republic and Slovakia – Čadca – Žilina –
Poprad Tatry – Košice – Čierna nad Tisou – state border between Slovakia and Ukraine –
C 30 / 1: Muszyna – state border between Poland and Slovakia – Plaveč – Prešov – Kysak –
Košice – Čaňa – state border between Slovakia and Hungary – Hidasnémeti.
Territorial nature and landscape protection:
The are national parks, protected landscape areas and other categories of protected areas in
the region of the Eastern Slovakia. On the northern part there are 3 national parks along the
border with Poland – Tha High Tatras National Park, Pieniny National Park and Poloniny
National Park. The extensive mountains along the border with Poland create a “natural
border” between the countries. The area is sparsely inhabited, the road network is of worse
quality, the quality of life is worse than in other parts of the region.
Other important protected areas in the region are Eastern Carpathian Protected Landscape
Area, Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovak Karst National Park, Vihorlat Protected
Landscape Area and Latorica Protected Landscape Area.
According to EU legislation there are also sites of community importance and special
protection areas in the region.
The european long-distance trails E3, E8 and I23 are crossing the region of Eastern Slovakia.
Recreation and tourism:
Recreation and tourism is connected with the landscape of the region. The protective areas in
the region are attractive for the tourist especially High Tatras with the highest peaks in
Slovakia, Slovak Paradise with its gorges, Slovak Karst with its caves.
The facilities for winter sports are in every higher mountain in the region. The summer sport
facilities are around the water reservoir of Zemplínska Šírava.
The wooden churches of Eastern Slovakia are important cultural heritage and attract lot of
South-east part of the region is well known for manufacturing of Tokaj wine – The Tokaj
wine road. The area still lacks good promotion.
Settlement structure:
Gravity zone - primary – area between Košice and Prešov.
Gravity zone - secondary – areas around middle sized towns of the region: Michalovce –
Vranov nad Topľou – Humenné, Spišská Nová Ves – Poprad - Kežmarok.
Gravity zone - tertiary – made up on the basis of centripetal influence of core towns Rožňava
, Bardejov, Trebišov, Stará Ľubovňa, Kráľovský Chlmec, Veľké Kapušany, Medzilaborce,
Snina, Svidník, Stropkov.
Development axis of 1st grade – connects settlement centres of primary gravity zone within
the country and with similar centres in the neighbouring countries; covers one express road
and railway:
 Prešov – Košice – Čaňa – border with Hungary
 Zvolen – Lučenec – Rimavská Sobota – Rožňava – Košice
 Žilina – Martin – Poprad – Prešov.
Development axis of 2nd grade - connects settlement centres of secondary gravity zone with
centres of primary gravity zone or connects settlement centres of secondary gravity zone
between each other; covers one road and railway of super regional importance or one express
 Prešov – Vranov nad Topľou – Michalovce - Humenné
 Prešov – Bardejov
 Prešov – Svidník – border with Poland
Development axis of 3rd grade - connects settlement centres of tertiary gravity zone between
each other or with centres of secondary gravity zone.
Demographic regionalization:
Eastern Slovakia is the home of nearly 30 % of the population of Slovakia. Development in
the number of inhabitans is influenced by the natural population increase (the excess of births
over deaths) as well as the increase through migration (the amount of immigration exceeds
the amount of emigration from the region). In general the number of inhabitants of Eastern
Slovakia is increasing.
Some parts of the region are of regressive type with the very old population and great
decrease of population especially on the north (near the border with Poland) and on the east
(near the border with Ukraine). The reason is less developed traffic infrastructure, mountain
area... Other parts of the region are of progressive type with very young population and
increase of population especially in the area of Prešov, Spišská Nová Ves, Levoča, Poprad
and Kežmarok.