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Evolution is known as descent with modification.
Plato created a ladder on which all forms of life could be organized based on complexity known
as scala naturae. True/False
The creator of the binomial naming system that used genus and species was Linnaeus.
Cuvier was a French scientist that studied organisms from the past. Name the objects he studied,
the study of those objects, name the principle he advocated, and describe that principle.
He studied fossils, the study of fossils is Paleontology, he advocated catastrophism which
states that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by different mechanisms
that those that occur today.
Hutton and Darwin proposed that geological processes were gradual and took many years to
change, but they believed these processes are occurring today. True/False
Lamarck believed that evolution occurred through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Describe the difference between artificial and natural selection.
Artificial- human modification and breeding for desired traits
Natural- organisms have heritable traits that may allow them to better survive and
reproduce in their environment which over time may change the population
Characteristics with common ancestral origins that may have a different function is known as
homology. True/False
Vestigial structures are remnants of structures that were used in an organism’s ancestors.
The principle of uniformitariansim states that mechanisms of change are constant over time.
The naming and classification of organisms is known as taxonomy. True/False
What is biogeography? The geographic distribution of species
Do individuals evolve? No
What is microevolution? The change in the allele frequency in a population over several
Average heterozygosity is the average percent of loci that are heterozygous. True/False
Describe geographic variation and a cline. Geographic variation is known as the differences
in the genetic composition of separate populations. A cline is a graded change in a
character along a geographic axis.
A change in the nucleotide sequence in DNA is known as a mutation.
For mutations to be passed on, they must occur in the what? Gametes
Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, find the amount of dominant homozygotes and
heterozygotes in a population of 1000 for black fur (bb= white fur, 25% of the population).
Name and describe the two types of genetic drift.
Founder effect- the movement of individuals to a new area
Bottleneck effect- a sudden environment change alters population size
Both result in a change in allele frequencies.
Gene flow is the movement of alleles in and out of a population as the result of individual
Relative fitness is the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool in the next generation.
Name and diagram the three modes of selection.
Directional, Disruptive, and Stabilizing
Sexual Selection is where the two sexes look different.
Intrasexual selection can be represented by competition between male and female goats.
When a heterozygote at a certain locus has greater fitness than either homozygote is known as
the hetorozygote advantage. True/False
Describe the difference between discrete and quantitative characters.
Discrete- one or the other; Quantitative- traits vary along continuum
The process by which species become two or more new species is called speciation.
Name and describe the 4 different definitions of species or species concepts discussed in class.
Biological- group of populations whose members can interbreed to produce fertile young
Morphological- species are defined by body shape and structural features
Ecological- species are defined by how their interact with their environment
Phylogenetic- smallest groups of individuals that share a common ancestor
Name the 5 prezygotic barriers and the 3 postzygotic barriers that prevent hybrids.
Pre- habitat isolation, temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, mechanical isolation,
gametic isolation; Post- reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid
Hybrid zones are areas where members of the species show new phenotypes. True/False
Describe allopatric and sympatric speciation.
Allopatric- gene flow stops to the geographic separation of members of a population
Sympatric- reproductive barriers occur in the same geographic area, it can result by
polyploidy, habitat differences, and sexual selection
What is punctuated equilibrium?
There are periods of relative unchanged followed by short bursts of dramatic change.