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Name _________________________
Date __________ Pd _____ Pg#____
What to Review for Chapter 4 & 5 test: Mostly Ecology
1. Systems and Models – there will be some review from the last test (first unit)
2. Chapter 4 – Ecological Food Webs, Pyramids, and the vocabulary involved
3. Chapter 5 – Relationships within a community and changes in community structure (ONLY
pages 84-96 and 100-103. We will return to the topics of species diversity and evolution
when we study biodiversity.)
4. Field work intro – dichotomous keys and biological sampling methods (from the short
populations video, the practice lab grading, and the “fishy” lab).
Systems and Models:
1. Describe the difference between closed, open, and isolated systems. Know examples of
2. Be able to compare and contrast the terms transformation and transfer processes. Consider
how they materials and energy may be transferred and transformed within an ecosystem.
3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using models to simulate systems.
4. What are the laws of thermodynamics? How do they apply to ecosystems?
5. What is the difference between steady state, static, and stable ecosystems?
6. What is a feedback loop by definition? What kinds of feedback loops are there? Can you
think of examples for each?
7. What is synergy and some examples of it?
8. Can you draw the inputs and outputs of an ecosystem, making sure to draw attention to
storages (stocks) and flows?
Ecosystems – Chapter 4
Key Terms for Chapter 4 – quiz yourself on these. Know examples.
cell respiration
energy flow through ecosystems
primary consumers
secondary consumers
tertiary consumers
food chains
food web
trophic level
pyramid of numbers
pyramid of biomass
pyramid of energy
gross primary
productivity (GPP)
net primary
productivity (NPP)
**Don’t forget to utilize the on-line book quizzes available under the “review materials”
button on blackboard!!!
1. Which of the following is an abiotic factor?
A. living space
B. disease organisms
C. photosynthesis
D. producers
E. saprotrophs
2. The chemical energy stored in a plant is an example of:
A. kinetic energy.
B. nuclear energy.
C. solar energy.
D. potential energy.
E. radiant energy.
3. The correct, chemically balanced equation for photosynthesis is:
A. 12CO2 + 6H2O + RADIANT ENERGY ----> C6H12O6 + 12O2.
B. 6CO2 + 12H2O + RADIANT ENERGY ----> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2.
C. 12O + C6H12O6 + 6H2O ----> 6CO2 +12H2O + ENERGY.
D. 12O2 + C6H12O6 + 12H2O ----> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ENERGY.
E. 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O ----> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ENERGY.
4. Which of the following is NOT a product of cell respiration?
A. carbon dioxide
B. water
C. sugar
D. energy
E. A and B
5. Give two examples of Producers: _______________________________________
Primary consumers: _______________________________
Secondary consumers: _____________________________
Detritivores: _____________________________________
6. Draw a picture of a salt marsh food web (discussed in chapter 4 in regards to the
Chesapeake Bay).
7. In a food web, how do you pick out the producers?
How do you pick out the top predators?
8. Which pyramids can be “inverted”? Which one cannot ever be inverted?
9. What is the mathematical rule for calculation biomass, energy, or numbers as the
pyramid goes from one trophic level to the next?
10. How does the pyramid structure affect:
a. The length of food chains?
b. The concentration of non-biodegradable toxins?
c. The number of top carnivores that can be supported?
11. Know the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration.
12. What does net primary productivity represent?
13. What kinds of energy are found in an ecosystem?
14. Know your levels (or hierarchy) or organization for ecology.
15. What exactly is a decomposer and from where does it collect its energy?
16. What is the difference between:
a. NPP and GPP?
b. Gross productivity for producers vs. consumers?
17. Where can energy be lost, therefore lowering the NP in an ecosystem?
18. Can you draw a flow diagram (with boxes and arrows) appropriately labeled for GP
and NP calculations? – See old quizzes
*ALSO SEE ECOLOGY PRACTICE QUESTIONS worksheet. –especially the last
problem where you must calculate NPP and GPP.
Chapter 5: Ecological Relationships
Key Terms for Chapter 5 : Quiz yourself on these and know examples.
warning coloration
intraspecific competition
interspecific competition
ecological niche
competitive exclusion
resource partitioning
primary succession
pioneer community
secondary succession
**Don’t forget to utilize the on-line book quizzes available under the “review materials”
button on blackboard!!! This one may have some questions that don’t apply to what will be
on the test since we didn’t cover the entire chapter.
1. Draw a key (with +, -, or 0 OR smiley/sad faces) for the types of symbiosis we have learned
about. You may want to jot down some examples of each!
2. Know examples from the text about resource partitioning and competitive exclusion.
3. Contrast intraspecific and interspecific competition. Which is (usually) more intense?
4. List some factors that are involved in an organism’s niche.
5. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession? (Give examples of where
each would occur.)
6. Draw a flow diagram showing an example of an area undergoing succession, including
names of organisms.
7. What are some species that would be likely to be pioneer species?
A climax species?
Field Work:
1. What are a few of the methods that we have mentioned regarding estimating species
abundance and/or species diversity in the field?
2. Why would line transects be inappropriate for measuring population density of salmon?
3. What would be a more appropriate method of calculation salmon population density? (Know
the formula from our lab…)
4. When would a dichotomous key be useful to an ecologist?
5. Can you follow and create a dichotomous key?