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Study Guide Joints and Skeletal Muscle 1. Define joint. 2. Joints can be distinguished based on structure. There are three structural classifications of joints. List and distinguish between each; make sure to give an example with each description. 3. Be able to identify a synovial joint as one of the following: a. Ball and socket b. Condyloid c. Gliding d. Hinge e. Pivot f. Saddle 4. Lable the following structures on a diagram: filaments, myofibril, perimysium, epimysium, endomysium, fascia, tendon, bone, fascicle, muscle fiber 5. Be able to distinguish between cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle fibers. 6. Define the all-or-none-principle. 7. Explain the role of crossbridges, actin, and myosin in the sliding filament theory. 8. Briefly summarize the 7 steps of a muscular contraction. 9. Where does energy for the contraction come from? What is the role of creatine phosphate in a muscular contraction? 10. What causes muscle cramps? 11. What is the function of lactic acid and how does it relate to oxygen debt? 12. Define prime mover, synergist, and antagonist. 13. Why do you think athletes generally perform better if they warm-up by exercising before a competitive event? 14. Study the following worksheet pages a. Lab report 20 p. 147 (part A) b. Lab report 21 p. 153 c. Lab report 23 p. 171 (Part A only) He only muscles that you will be responsible for identifying are: Zygomaticus Buccinator Orbicularis oris Orbicularis oculi Platysma Masseter Temporalis Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Rhomboideus major Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Subscapularis Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Brachioradials External obliques Rectus abdominus Internal oblique Transverse abdominis Sartorius Rectus femoris V. lateralis V. medialis Adductor longus Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Fibularis longus Tibialis anterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus List the muscles of the rotator cuff. List the muscles of the quadriceps group. List the muscles of the hamstring group. Distinguish between a static and a dynamic stabilizer.